Creations of MITHU

Creations of 👑Ŵя.⭐♏⭐i⭐t⭐h⭐u

 

THE HEROISM

Scene (1)

Loc – A jungle/extor./morning.

Artists – A monk and his students.

Costume – Ancient dresses for the monk and his students.

(A)

The monk – ‘As you know my children, we live in a jungle and the wild animals are our neighbors. That is why we have to learn the book – Dhanurveda – written by the Lord Shiva him self, for our self – defense only.

From this book, we can learn so many things regarding the weapons, self defense, war, the ethics of war, the duties and the right conducts of a soldier to his enemies in the battle field etc.

This book can make us brave and full with ethics and heroism undoubtedly.’

(He shows a book to his students sitting in front of him).

(B)

Some of the students are practicing the sword war. The monk is supervising them.

The monk – ‘Good. Very good! But, boys remember one thing – if your enemy is busy to fight against some one, then you can not invite him to fight against you.’

One of the students – ‘If any body does not want to fight or wants to give up, what should we do?’

The monk –‘Do not fight with him. Just let him go.’

Another student – ‘Ok. Understood.’

(C)

The one of the students is trying to throw an arrow.

The monk – ‘Did not you read the book of Dhanurveda properly my son? This is not the correct method of throwing an arrow!’

The student – ‘Sorry.’

(He corrects his position).

The monk – ‘Now it is ok.’

Scene (2)

Loc – A battle field/extor./morning.

Artists – Many warriors with their weapons, chariots and their drivers, different types of animals etc.

Costume – Ancient dresses for each of the warriors and the drivers of the chariots.

(A)

We are showing the scene of a sun rise.

(B)

A man is blowing a conch in the battlefield.

(SOME ONE IS SAYING FROM THE BACKGROUND) –

– ‘In ancient India, wars happen only on day time and with the sound of a conch etc.’

(C)

(SOME ONE IS SAYING FROM THE BACKGROUND) –

  • There were some other tangible ethics too.

One of them was that – A horse rider could only fight with another horse rider.

A charioteer with another charioteer and an elephant rider with another elephant rider only.

We are showing that – a horse rider is fighting with another horse rider. A charioteer with another charioteer and an elephant rider is fighting with another elephant rider at a time in the same battlefield.

(D)

(SOME ONE IS SAYING FROM THE BACKGROUND) –

  • An ancient Indian warrior could fight with another equally powerful warrior only.

(E)

(SOME ONE IS SAYING FROM THE BACKGROUND) –

In the book of Dhanurveda – Lord Shiva told that a real hero should not sack or kill his sense less enemy.

We are showing that, a senseless man is lying down on the field. And another person is withdrawing his weapon then.

(F)

(SOME ONE IS SAYING FROM THE BACKGROUND) –

The Dhanurveda taught the ancient people of India to not to fight with a person, who had no weapon at all or not armed properly.

A soldier (to another soldier, who has no weapons) – ‘Don’t worry. I won’t kill you. Because, you have lost all of your weapons!’

That another solider – ‘Thank you. Thank you. May God bless you.’

Scene (3)

We are showing some pictures of real disruptions, terrorist attack, the dead bodies of innocent people etc.

(SOME ONE IS SAYING FROM THE BACKGROUND) –

Those days are gone. In this modern age, majority of the people do not care about the coherent ethics of war. They are killing the common people, innocent people, the children, the pregnant women, the old men and women, the monks, the priests, the patients, the doctors, the nurses now. They forget that Heroism and terrorism is not the same thing at all.

Scene (4)

We are showing some pictures of to day’s war.

(SOME ONE IS SAYING FROM THE BACKGROUND) –

This age is the age of the shadow war actually. The concealment and camouflage become the key words of today’s war strategy.

There is no difference between a terrorist and a soldier to day.

Scene (5)

We are showing some pictures of to day’s training for wars.

(SOME ONE IS SAYING FROM THE BACKGROUND) –

People are being taught to see the enemy without being seen. To kill without being killed.

‘There is no principle in love and war’ – this is the only principle of to day’s war practically.

Scene (6)

(A)

We are showing some pictures of the training for wars in ancient India.

(SOME ONE IS SAYING FROM THE BACKGROUND) –

Lord Shiva, Guru Drona, Guru Kripa gave us common weapons only. They did not want to destroy the whole world.

(B)

We are showing some pictures of to day’s war.

(SOME ONE IS SAYING FROM THE BACKGROUND) –

This age is the age of the Nuclear Bombs, Carpet Bombing.

The weapons of this new age can destroy the planet Earth for several times.

In fact, these weapons are killing the innocent people and the members of the animal kingdom, destroying the trees and plants, polluting the water, the air, the whole environment of the world rather.

Scene (7)

Loc – A jungle/extor./morning.

Artists – A monk and his students.

Costume – Ancient dresses for the monk and his students.

The monk – ‘Take these weapons boys.’

(He distributes some weapons to his students).

The students (Together) – ‘Thank you Guruji.’

The monk –‘May God bless you my children – to day and al ways. But, remember one thing.’

The students (Together) – ‘What is that Guruji?’

The monk – ‘Do not impel yourselves to hurt the innocent people or any member of the animal kingdom boys. Do not destroy the plants and trees. Any of them is not your enemy. Do not pollute the environment. Try to maintain the purity of the air and water children for the shake of the whole world.’

The students (Together) – ‘Yes Guruji. We will remember.’

Scene (8)

Loc – A jungle/extor./morning.

Artists – A General (from abroad) and his soldiers.

Costume – Army dresses (uniforms) for the General (from abroad) and his soldiers.

The General – ‘I want the total destruction. Kill any body and every body you can. They are the citizens of the enemy country soldiers. That is why we consider all of them as our enemies. Just kill them. Yes, kill them all.

Try to destroy the whole environment of the country also.’

The soldiers (Together) – ‘Right Sir.’

The General – ‘Now go and kill. Kill. Kill. Kill.’

Scene (9)

We are showing some pictures of the Indian soldiers (Ancient and modern).

(SOME ONE IS SAYING FROM THE BACKGROUND) –

In the Indian point of view, there is no difference between a soldier and a saint indeed.

Scene (10)

Loc – A jungle/extor./morning.

Artists – A monk and his students.

Costume – Ancient dresses for the monk and his students.

The students are practicing the throwing of Arrows. The monk is giving them instructions.

The monk – ‘Take a deep breath.’

(The students took deep breath).

The monk – ‘Now throw the arrow and excel the breath with chanting the word HUM.’

(Each of the students throws the arrow and excels the breath with chanting the word HUM).

The monk – ‘Great. That’s it.

Remember one thing boys – you are the saints not only soldiers.’

The students (Together) – ‘Yes Guruji. We know that.’

Scene (11)

Loc – A training camp/extor./morning.

Artists – An Indian Army Officer and few soldiers.

Costume – Army dresses (uniforms) for the Officer and his soldiers.

The soldiers are practicing the Riffle Shooting. The Officer is giving them instructions.

The Officer – ‘Take a deep breath.’

(The soldiers took deep breath).

The Officer – ‘Now shoot and excel the breath with chanting the word HUM.’

(Each of the soldiers shoots and excels the breath with chanting the word HUM).

The Officer – ‘Good, very good. Don’t forget boys, you are more than the soldiers. You are the saviors. You are not less than the saints, boys.’

The soldiers (Together) – ‘Right Sir. We never forget.’

Scene (12)

Loc – A class room/extor./morning.

Artists – An Indian Army Officer and few soldiers.

Costume – Army dresses (uniforms) for the Officer and his soldiers.

The soldiers (Together) – ‘Good morning Sir.’

The Officer – ‘Very very good morning boys. Today I am going to tell you about something, which is really very special.’

One of the soldiers – ‘We are eager to know Sir.’

Other soldiers (Together) – ‘Yes Sir.’

The Officer – ‘First of all, you should remember that, you are the soldiers of a very civilized country. You are not the killers at all.

When ever, where ever and whom ever you are fighting with, you are doing just a duty of yours for the beneficial of your country and country people only.

Yes, you are the saviors of the innocent people of your country.

You are in defense. You have to save the lives of the innocent country people. It is your duty.

One of the soldiers – ‘Yes Sir. We are soldiers. We are saviors. We are defense persons. We are not a group of killers at all.’

Other soldiers (Together) – ‘Yes Sir.’

The Officer – ‘Exactly. You are very right.

You are soldiers. You are saviors. You are defense persons. You are not a group of killers at all.

And, entire of your life you should, you must and you  have to understand, remember and obey the fact, that you are brave soldiers not the heartless killers.’

One of the soldiers – ‘Sir’

The Officer – ‘Yes?’

That particular soldier – ‘Sir, I have a question in my mind. Will you please give me the answer of the question?’

The Officer – ‘Yes. Definitely. Why not? What’s the question? Just tell me my boy.’

That soldier – ‘Should we consider a terrorist as a warrior Sir?’

The Officer – ‘What?’

That soldier – ‘Sir!’

The Officer – ‘What do you want to say?’

That soldier – ‘Sir!’

The Officer – ‘Please repeat your question.’

That soldier – ‘Actually Sir….’

The Officer – ‘Come on my boy. Do not hesitate. Just tell me.’

That soldier – ‘Should we consider a terrorist as a warrior Sir?’

The Officer – ‘No.’

That soldier – ‘Why?’

The Officer – ‘Tell me something.’

That soldier – ‘What Sir?’

The Officer – ‘Why do you want to consider a terrorist as a soldier?’

That soldier – ‘Because, he is also sacrificing his life.’

The Officer – ‘No. He is killing some body. He is taking revenge. He is a robot, controlling by someone’s hate rate only.’

That soldier – ‘Yes. Now I understand.’

The Officer – ‘Do you understand?’

That soldier – ‘Yes. I understand.’

The Officer – ‘Any doubt?’

That soldier – ‘No Sir.’

The Officer – ‘Are you sure?’

That soldier – ‘Yes Sir.’

The Officer – ‘Good.’

That soldier – ‘Thank you Sir.’

What your wedding venue says about you!

By Mithu Ghoshal

Pursuant  to the discretion of the pensive yet prudent people –  WEDDING  is the most stunning yet ravishing  word of the world yet the brides and the grooms are the most beautiful creatures of the planet earth – as a matter of fact. The common people of the society like us never oppose yet aver, applaud it as unadulterated oracle – revelation – peeled verity.

Yes, wedding is something which is very beautiful, absolutely exquisite. Not only that, it is a sumptuous ramification of incantations  also. It has the talisman to denote the inward notes of a bride – of a groom as well.

See, it is very important for a bride or a groom to realise her or his life partner fully and completely – else she or he will fill very difficult to make their marital relationship durable (else, that particular relationship will be nipped or ripped very soon).

The wedding venue, the locus of the marriage, the preferred lieu of the nuptial of a newly married couple has the magical, mysterious power to flaunt up the reared latent traits of the bride and the groom to each other actually.

Yes, it is absolutely incredible but  not an infatuation at all. It is 100 percent true. – A peeled verity actually.

Come on – just rip out all the doubts and hitches from havoc of  your mind and decipher this writ, which is containing the very particular of notches or niches advertently, minutely now. –

  • A sea – beach – If a bride or a groom opts a sea beach to complete the nuptial, then that very particular person is truly a casual one, yet has not the slightest part of pomposity in his or her mind at all.
  • A hotel ball room – If someone chooses a hotel ball room as his or her wedding venue, then it is true that – this person has an aristocratic legacy as well as self pride.  He or she awes the traditions of the society  – yet does not run for something, which is  He or she is sophisticated and a very good host too.
  • An art museum – If an art museum is the locus for the marriage of somebody, then that person is bohemian, very much creative minded, absolutely unique, unparalleled, sole, peerless yet pixilated , wacky.
  • An outdoor wedding – If a bride or a groom is just crazy for an outdoor wedding, then he or she is chic, very romantic by nature – undoubtedly.
  • A Country club – A Country club is the preferable marriage locus of an ambitious, aspirant, aspiring, sky – high person – actually.
  • The backyard – A man or a lady – who loves his or her own family too much, can opt the backyard as his or her nuptial lieu.
  • A rustic barn – A laborious yet beauty lover urbana can opt a rustic barn to complete all the rituals of his or her very own wedding.

4) Mehendi – lagake rakhna, doli sajake rakhna- lene tujhe wo gori, ayenge tere sajna!

By Mithu Ghoshal

Mehendi  is one of the assets of ancient India. One of the cases of the richness of India rather. It was derived in our beloved motherland – as the earlier stage of human civilization yet acquires familiarity in Indian subcontinent, Middle East, Africa even.

In the western part of the planet earth mehendi becomes a name of a craziness in the late (19)90’s actually.

Any ways, the matter of fact is – a marriage (especially a nuptial of a Hindu or a Sikh family in northern India) cannot be imagined even – since the very beginning day to today’s era! – Yes, we can accentuate it.

There is a manifold of sought mehendi designs, shapes, patterns, styles  to captivate people actually.

The Indian design is predominated by delicate Batik mehendi design actually.

The traditional most yet eldest form of mehendi is – Mughlai mehendi.

The geometrical pattern is the distinctive genre of the Middle East (Moroccan).

A dense outline is the accent  of Arabic design. It is not so elaborate  as the Indian style is(that is the split).

Indo-Arabic design is the combination of Indian and Arabic style (the Pakistani paisley is the perfect example of this genre).

The multi coloured and the glitter mehendi is very much popular among   the modern people of the society actually.

Everybody has a respect for the pop Bridal mehendi – which is embedded with veins, flowers, lacy design, asymmetric  pattern, swirl, mandala, peacock, elephant, king-queen, other motifs etc.

5) The wedding dress – she opts – denotes the latent notes of the lady – very clearly yet truly accurately!

By Mithu Ghoshal

It is verity that, for a lady, her wedding attire is resembled with an alpine argentine memorabilia – which never emaciates yet always, emanates! Generally, ladies opt white gowns (In 19th century,Queen Victoria made it popular actually) for their big days. Yet, there is a manifold of exceptional examples are over there – in all over the western world. Such as Sheath, Fit n Flare, A- line, mermaid,Ball gown, Cocktail, Heirloom, Skirt suit,  Jump suit, Non white Etc.

Every woman opt her wedlock attire as per her own choice yet yields us to realise and recognise her personality properly.

 

Do you know something – the wedding cloth of a woman depicts her inward world!

 

Marriage – not a word only. It is a dream – which has no camouflage, which will never rot, which cannot be spared or eradicated. It is a decent incident indeed. It eradiates.  It is a proneness. It shields people from the pelter of the piler of grieves and sorrows – actually. It is the trailblazer of mental yet material pleasure. Marriage has the cognation with incantation – as a matter of fact (as per our cognition – it is verity). It is a sort, a modality which comprises the astonishing talisman to transform yet transmute anybody of the planet earth into the happiest person of the universe actually.

Another thing – marriage is very important for the society as well. Because, marriage forges a family yet a family is the unit of the society – in verity – undoubtedly!

Especially for a lady the wedlock is the pillar of her life. Matrimony means the comprehensive reincarnation for her – indeed.

The wedding dress of a lady plays a very important role in her life also. Yet it yields us amenities to view and review her inner world too.

1)Seath

If a captivating lady (who is going to get marry yet going to become a ravishing bride) opt a seath wedding dress for her big day, then she might be very accomplished, tame, sober, and stable. She has full notion on herself also.

 

 

 

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=seath+-+wedding+dress+-+free+image&tbm=isch&imgil=LDatk0Rszg4KxM%253A%253BnMg4OFzM-9QC6M%253Bhttp%25253A%25252F%25252Fwww.dhgate.com%25252Fstore%25252Fproduct%25252F2016-beach-wedding-dresses-lace-cape-sleeves%25252F381278950.html&source=iu&pf=m&fir=LDatk0Rszg4KxM%253A%252CnMg4OFzM-9QC6M%252C_&usg=__9ujeRoN-VRH3OlmSuo0XaKB70kw%3D&biw=1047&bih=462&ved=0ahUKEwic3oO0kPzTAhUIu48KHV9-BqkQyjcIUw&ei=2vseWZyJN4j2vgTf_JnICg#imgrc=LDatk0Rszg4KxM:

 

 

 

2) Fit n Flare

The lady who loves to smile, loves to giggle, loves to laugh, loves to guffaw, who likes to make fun with everybody – she loves – always, who is passionate about flamboyancy, who is fascinate about all those things – which are pompous, she likes to wear a Fit n Flare in her wedding ceremony – generally.

 

 

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=free+image+of+fit+n+flare+wedding+dress&tbm=isch&imgil=A998ruRstWIvfM%253A%253BihRyu3rdZdLmoM%253Bhttps%25253A%25252F%25252Fwww.pinterest.com%25252Fgroomsandbrides%25252Ffit-flare-dropped-waist-wedding-dress%25252F&source=iu&pf=m&fir=A998ruRstWIvfM%253A%252CihRyu3rdZdLmoM%252C_&usg=__lol5BfKAsz_hrBemK0UVKpzxRxA%3D&biw=1047&bih=462&ved=0ahUKEwiD8ODM3v3TAhWKrY8KHbIfAdwQyjcIOQ&ei=ENQfWYOoHIrbvgSyv4TgDQ#imgrc=A998ruRstWIvfM:

3)  A – Line

No, she is not a gig at all. She is not a perky type of girl as well.  – Yes, we are talking about that particular lady, who opts A – Line wedding attire actually. Actually, she is very much classic type of lady – you know.

She is graceful, she is seemly, she is decent, she loves elegance, decency, she is truly and absolutely romantic, but she is very much traditional (not a conservative one at all) also. She doesn’t rely on temporary modalities. She figures on those sorts merely – which are  timeless.

 

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=free+image+of+A-line+wedding+dress&tbm=isch&imgil=S5G_88xN1jTvGM%253A%253BjevKyG8iu7SStM%253Bhttp%25253A%25252F%25252Fwww.davidsbridal.com%25252Fwedding-dresses%25252Foleg-cassini&source=iu&pf=m&fir=S5G_88xN1jTvGM%253A%252CjevKyG8iu7SStM%252C_&usg=__kkGDzVhZY5iJ7oWhCyFOgAExX1E%3D&biw=1047&bih=462&ved=0ahUKEwils__jy_7TAhXBpY8KHSNtDIQQyjcIOQ&ei=jEYgWaW9KMHLvgSj2rGgCA#imgrc=S5G_88xN1jTvGM:

4)  Mermaid

Just a minute,  are you  invited in a big fat wedding convention and witnessing that the bride is embellished herself with a Mermaid out fit? Then you can presume to assume that – this bride owns a regal nature, a royal mentality,  an astonishing personality. She is truly a classy woman. Yet her self confidence level is very high.

 

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=free+image+of+mermaid+wedding+dress&tbm=isch&imgil=5IKH0aSLy9QNDM%253A%253BPlbM-oFDPHJOnM%253Bhttps%25253A%25252F%25252Fwww.shutterstock.com%25252Fsearch%25252Fmermaid%2525252Bdress&source=iu&pf=m&fir=5IKH0aSLy9QNDM%253A%252CPlbM-oFDPHJOnM%252C_&usg=__7ohKaZqehV8yVLPE3KXqDDZRJjE%3D&biw=1047&bih=462&ved=0ahUKEwiZ48Gg0P7TAhXEtI8KHR6jApYQyjcINw&ei=PUsgWdnQE8TpvgSexoqwCQ#imgrc=5IKH0aSLy9QNDM:

5) Ball gown

Hey, in front of you, a bride is adorned herself with a Ball gown! – Do you think – she is a conservative one! No, you are absolutely wrong. She is terribly dramatic; she has a romantic nature also. But she is not a conservative type of lady at all. Though she is season to awe traditions – obviously.

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=free+image+of+ball+gown+wedding+dress&tbm=isch&imgil=dIP4RDKGLXGSMM%253A%253Bhyo1bRfQh8QjUM%253Bhttp%25253A%25252F%25252Fwww.dhgate.com%25252Fproduct%25252Fstella-york-2017-ball-gown-wedding-dresses%25252F388286941.html&source=iu&pf=m&fir=dIP4RDKGLXGSMM%253A%252Chyo1bRfQh8QjUM%252C_&usg=__ETcW0x38lfspO22IXRSjtKVAuEo%3D&biw=1047&bih=462&ved=0ahUKEwjFn66U1f7TAhVLtY8KHTPEBaQQyjcIQg&ei=YlAgWcVmy-q-BLOIl6AK#imgrc=dIP4RDKGLXGSMM:

6) Cocktail

If she wears a Cocktail dress in her wedding ceremony, then she is a fun loving girl, she is a free sprit yet doesn’t like anything which is stuffy.

 

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=free+images+of+cocktail+wedding+dress&tbm=isch&imgil=omRk3p9zl9rPEM%253A%253BeSCUkxH7UUCsCM%253Bhttps%25253A%25252F%25252Fwww.pinterest.com%25252Fbluestonewed%25252Fcocktail-tea-length-wedding-dresses%25252F&source=iu&pf=m&fir=omRk3p9zl9rPEM%253A%252CeSCUkxH7UUCsCM%252C_&usg=__c96xVxB77rLF7CCQmASfxHh3msQ%3D&biw=1047&bih=462&ved=0ahUKEwi07dfWhoHUAhVBL48KHeTcCdkQyjcINw&ei=vZAhWfSaOMHevATkuafIDQ#imgrc=omRk3p9zl9rPEM:

7)  Heirloom

The bride, who is wearing a Heirloom, is definitely very cute, sweet and too much emotional. She is open eyed, canny yet vigilant too.

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=free+image+of+heirloom+wedding+dress&tbm=isch&imgil=huRWCodO9hegtM%253A%253BZCYm5GCIlDW3fM%253Bhttps%25253A%25252F%25252Fpixabay.com%25252Fen%25252Fphotos%25252Fwedding%2525252520dress%25252F&source=iu&pf=m&fir=huRWCodO9hegtM%253A%252CZCYm5GCIlDW3fM%252C_&usg=__cMb5Gdwny8taDjhBISRxsRMY-ms%3D&biw=1047&bih=462&ved=0ahUKEwjnx8iJooDUAhXJuI8KHQb6DeYQyjcIMw&ei=QCchWeenJ8nxvgSG9LewDg#imgrc=huRWCodO9hegtM:

8) Skirt suit

If you saw a woman to embellish herself with Skirt suit and went out to get marry,then she  is very much self conscious.

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=free+image+of+skirt+suit+wedding+dress&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwigj53Qo4DUAhVGpY8KHRhVDykQ7AkIOA&biw=1047&bih=462#imgrc=qsjSjPBaDsqH1M:

9) Jump suit

She comprises an unadulterated sympathetic heart – who wears Jump Suit in her wedlock party.

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=free+images+of+jump+suit+wedding+dress&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwisx-iThoHUAhWBMo8KHTiMAtYQsAQIJQ&biw=1047&bih=462#imgrc=j36eUI860U5OWM:

10) Non white wedding dress

If you noticed a lady to wear coloured dress in her big day, then you have to understand that, she  is an urbana undoubtedly.

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=free+images+of+cocktail+wedding+dress&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi07dfWhoHUAhVBL48KHeTcCdkQsAQIJQ&biw=1047&bih=462#imgdii=UQZ3L-8A3UAVaM:&imgrc=RFbnBc7LxaipMM:

 

 

Now, you are educated enough to judge a lady properly by the help of her wedlock attire actually. Hence, since this jiffy, join in a wedlock convention with not only inquisitiveness but also with full of self confidence.

 

 

Sources –

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wedding_dress

http://www.cosmopolitan.com/style-beauty/fashion/advice/a7181/what-your-wedding-dress-says-about-you/

https://www.bridesdiary.com.au/fashion-inspiration/articles/416/what-your-wedding-dress-says-about-you

http://www.newlovetimes.com/what-your-wedding-dress-says-about-you/

https://www.forbes.com/2008/06/06/wedding-style-personality-forbeslife-cx_ls_0606style.html

 

7) A manifold of amazing  ideas for the first birth day of your child

By Mithu Ghoshal(2 World Records Holder)

If you have a baby (whether it is a girl or a boy, it doesn’t matter ), then you are a blissful person indeed. As per the cognition of prudent, shrewd yet pensive people, a baby has the cognation with the blessing of Almighty. Babies are the symbols of God’s grace. A child always resembles the face of the maker of all. A baby is the asset of the world – as a matter of fact. A baby carries an ocean of possibilities    actually. Hence, if you have a kid – just treat him or her as a seed. Yield him or her sufficient love and proper care. Yet you need to flaunt up your love  and adoration to your kid. – You have to felicitate him or her yet celebrate his or her birthday with flamboyancy – especially the first birthday of the tiny one. Here are some ideas to help you out in this particular of niches……………

Birthday party theme for a baby girl

  • Butterfly theme – A butterfly is an insect but very colourful and beautiful. You can invoke the beautiful hues of the butterflies to embellish the party of your daughter’s first birthday.  To arrange this party, you need these things actually – Honeycomb balls, balloon pump, balloons, butterfly gift bags, polkas, welcome banner, posters, backdrops and obviously colourful butterflies.
  • Fairy princes theme – You can arrange a fairy princes theme party for your little fairy princes also. Just yield attention to the backdrops, posters, invitation cards and thank you cards, welcome banner, fairy themed bottles, fairy food labels, cupcake toppers, gift bags etc.
  • Rainbow theme – Put rainbow colours on the board, cards, hats, bands, balloons etc. Put a wish tree with animation too.
  • Twinkle Twinkle little star theme – You can opt the twinkle twinkle little star theme for your little star obviously – to make her twinkled.
  • Mickey & Minnie theme – Show Mickey and Minnie everywhere – on the cups, plates, hats, photo frames etc also.

Birthday party theme for a baby boy

  • Car theme – Boys just love to roam. Hence, a car birthday party theme is perfect for your son actually. Just decorate your locus with a manifold of cars of different hues. Opt signals as well.
  • Ball theme – Don’t forget to opt ball hats, wristbands, cupcake stands , plates etc also.
  • Little prince theme – You can buckle up your very own little prince with the attire of a prince also – if you want.
  • Little Krishna theme –This theme is also very cute yet sweet.
  • Circus theme – Circus birthday theme makes everybody happy – the birthday boy included.

Birthday party themes for twins – For the twins, you can opt Baby animal zoo, Tom n Jerry, Smiley, Jungle, Jungle safari etc.

8) How to wish your brother precisely – in his birthday

By Mithu Ghoshal

We are creatures; we inhere in the planet earth. It is our dwelling house. Yet, it is the matter of our greatest pride – that we are included in a very special category of creatures – MAN. We have rationality – which has no corrosion, comprises precion yet emerged by the precision creator of this specious, extensive planet – named earth – merely. Just like other creatures, we are gregarious – also. We comprise emotions in our hearts. Brotherhood is a  vigorous emotion. We believe on brotherhood. We rely on brotherhood.  A baby – from any corner of the world – from his or her early childhood is season to listen yet read the stories of the brotherhood actually!

The members of the arm forces of any country are the ambassadors yet consuls of the brotherhood – as a matter of fact.

Anyways, a brother is something – which is absolutely ethereal. An elder brother resembles the father yet young brother is the symbol of the son – actually. Your brother is your asset. Hence, never vanquish yourself to pitch a  wish to him on his birthday – yet before that just decipher this writ advertently.

Here is a muster of quotes and massages –  we compiled to help you out in this very particular of notches.

Quotes

  • It is the most decent incident of my life – my brother’s birthday. Happy birthday to you my brother!
  • You are precious to me , my brother – because you have a spacious heart! – Happy birthday to you.
  • As per my cognition – you have a cognation with happiness my dear brother – happy birthday to you!
  • Be a blissful person – live a peaceful life – always – deary brother of mine – happy happy happy birthday to you!
  • Your birthday is a sweet tweak – which compels me to yield you all the blessings from the core of my heart  my brother.
  • This is the bday of my big bro – I will pray for him – whole day, whole night – I vow.
  • You are a king today – today is you big day – have all the blessings of God – my dear brother – happy birthday to you!
  • Happy birthday brother – may God compile only giggle, guffaw yet smile for you.
  • Pitch only the speech of adoration friends – today is the birthday of my dear brother after all.
  • His eyes emit light of blessings for me – always – he is my elder brother. Today is his birthday! Say ‘happy birthday’ to him everybody.
  • Angles deplete their stocks of blessings completely – yet yield to my brother today. As his birthday gift.
  • I salute the solitude of this day – it is my brother’s birthday after all.
  • Your birthday will never emaciate yet it will emanate lights of happiness every year – brother – my dear!
  • Your naughty tweak of endearment is my most favourite entertainment my dear brother – happy birthday to you!
  • The birthday of my brother is the most seemly day of my life – I simply aver it.
  • Vive to you, viva for you my brother – on your birthday!
  • The universe reverberates ‘Happy birthday’ every year to revere you my dear brother!

Massages

1)This is the special day for someone – who is very very very special in my life! He is my brother and today is his birthday! Wo God! Please please please bless him always.

2) You are going to be an acclaimed person very soon – my dear brother –  it is my claim on your birthday!

  • Give love to all – be lovable too – my brother – since today – happy birthday to you.
  • Every birthday reincarnates you my brother, be better – every year.
  • May God save you from every indecent incident – always – I pray to him for you on your birthday – dear brother of mine.
  • I revere you severely my elder brother – hence, your birthday is a solemn event fro me. Happy birth day to you.
  • You are benevolent for me – my brother, I love you so much. Happy birthday to you!
  • This is really an auspicious day for me – this is your birthday big brother – many happy returns of the day!

9)21st birthday wishes and massages

By Mithu Ghoshal

Our parents are the pillars of our lives. Barring the pillars we are absolutely nothing.

A child is always a baby for his or her parents actually. Yet it is verity that, parents want yet assent their children to become ascended, self dependent , full with flairs – to soar up – to dealt with any kind of circumstances – to strive against every type of adversaries – not to become a survivor but a laureate actually. That’s   why the 21st birth day of a daughter or a son is an important event for the parents actually. To felicitate a child for acquiring maturity – we compiled a swam of quotes and massages over here to help you out –

Quotes

  • You are matured – build your future now – happy birth day to you.
  • It is clean and clear – you are acquiring discretion and flair gradually! Best wishes on your 21st
  • You were a breeze one – now you are a sizzling one. Happy birthday to you!
  • Conjure to you my child – conquer the world with the weapon of love merely. Happy birth day to you!
  • Not a little girl, now you are a 21 years old lady – be static and steady! Happy birth day to you!
  • You are not a small boy – need no toy – just make your future now! Happy birth day to you!
  • You are 21 now – be rigid, invoke speed in your life too. Happy birth day to you!
  • You are wild, you are mild too – you are my child – Happy birth day to you!
  • It is my notion – you will be one of the assets of nation. – Wo my child, happy birthday to you!
  • Your incarnation is an incantation for me. Happy happy happy birthday to you my child.
  • Set a goal and onset the exercises to get the goal dear – happy birthday.
  • I am your parent and your happiness is my incipient need. Happy birth day to you.
  • You are a luscious, precious gift for us. Happy birthday sweetheart.
  • You are the most beautiful case of God’s grace! Happy birthday to you and many happy returns of the day too.
  • Don’t be a foul else you can’t be able to accomplish your goal at all! Happy birthday to you and many happy returns of the day too.
  • You are a very beautiful soul – may God bless you to accomplish your each and every goal. Happy birthday to you and many happy returns of the day too.
  • You are not my mirror – you are much better than me my child – Happy birthday to you and many happy returns of the day too.
  • For your parents your birthday resembles with the ray of the blessing of God actually! Happy birthday to you and many happy returns of the day too.

Massages

  • You will be smarter since today – I assert it ! Happy birthday to you!
  • This is day of your incipience – this is the day of your independence as well – Happy 21st birthday!
  • This is not a segregated day – this is a great day actually! This is my child’s 21st birth day after all!
  • 21 years back – you took birth and removed all the grudges for the world from my heart – thank you my child – thank you very much. Happy birth day to you too!
  • You are 21 today – this age is the last stage of play and voyage! Enjoy fully my child! Happy birth day to you!
  • You are our child, you are our pride – nobody is collided about it. Happy birth day to you!
  • You are now 21 years old but for me you are still a little girl and resembled with a pink pearl. Happy birthday.
  • Now your age is 21 – try to become a big person – my son.
  • No, it is not a hoax; we really have a volition to coax you on your birthday. Because, you are our child and we are your parents!
  • Be a scathing one else you will get nothing in your life my child! Happy birthday to you!

English poetry
1)
Love is a feeling
Which has no meaning –
in naked eyes.
But it lies
Everywhere and
From Sunrise to sunset and sunset to Sunrise.
Love is a feeling that gives a life a meaning.
2)
Love is life life is love
Love lives in above the sky
Love makes someone smile
Love makes someone cry.
Love never leaves anybody alone
Love ropes two unknown people
Makes them soulmates very much known.

Hindi poetry
1)
तुम्हारे प्यार के काबिल हम है या नहीं यह तो नहीं पता, पर प्यार की जरूरत हमें भी है बिल्कुल तुम्हारी ही तरह!
2)
मेरी सलाह मान लो मेरे दोस्तों मेरे यारों
प्यार क्या है नहीं है इसका चर्चा छोड़ो
और जम के प्यार करो
बस प्यार ही करो!

English dialogue
1)
Someone – ‘Tell me something! Is love our destination or our destiny?’
Another one – ‘ No, love is not a destination, it’s a feeling. What weather someone’s destiny creates the feeling of love in the heart or the feeling of love creates the destiny of someone – I am also confused about it.’

Hindi dialogue
1)
एक इंसान – ‘सब कुछ सह लेंगे हम पर प्यार की कमी बर्दाश्त नहीं कर पाएंगे!’
दूसरा इंसान – ‘फिर अपने आप से प्यार करो, किसी दूसरे से प्यार की उम्मीद ही ना करो!’

English inspirational message
1)
Love itself is an inspiration which has the mysterious power to transmute a human being into a heavenly creature as a matter of fact.

Hindi inspirational message
1)
प्यार की कमी बर्दाश्त नहीं कर पाओगे अगर तो बस प्यार देते जाओ देते जाओ क्योंकि every action has seen and opposite reaction.

English mentoring message
1)
Self healing is the best healing process indeed. Yes, it’s true that you can Heal yourself very easily. Just chant constantly – ‘I m in perfect health.’ Chant this particular sentence silently always and every moment. Make a strong belief in this sentence in your own mind. Rely on this sentence. Meditate on this sentence. visualise carefully that you are really in a perfect health condition. Do this health exercise in a daily basis and see the result in just a few days…..

Hindi mentoring message
1)
hello how are you ji aaj se abhi se koi bhi aap se Pooche yeah Sawal how are you aap bus ek hi jawab dijiyega I am fine as ever I am healthy as ever I am healthy happy cheerful as ever . dekhiye, Hamare jo Bade Bujurg Hain wo Aksar kehte Hain aur Yeh Sach bhi hai k Khuda kahi aur rehte hain ya na Rehte Hain par Hamare Dil Mein zaroor Rehte Hain aur Hamara Dil Kahan rehta hai Hamare Jism Ke Andar hai na toh agar Ye Jism beemar Ho Gaya Toh Kya Khuda Ko acha lage ga ek tute phute Makan Mein rehna isliye Jab aap bimar Pad Gaye Honge Raat Ko sote Waqt Yeh Soch Lijiye k Khuda yeah Koi Angel Farishta aapke Guru Koi Bhi Ho aap ke ilaj kar rahe hain aapka Bimari Dur kar rahe hain Subha ko Jab Aapke ankhe khulenge aap Dekhenge ke Aap Ki Bimari gayab ho chuki hai ji haan aisa hota hai aapka Jism Ek Anmol Khazana hai Jiska Malik Bas Ek aap hi hain. Par yeah khajana jiti jagti Hai. Aap se baat karti hai aap is se baat kariye is se kya problem hai kyu Yeh bimar hai yeah Khud aapko Bata Degi aap bus Dhyan se is Ki Baatein Soniye aur uspe Amal kariye Kehte Hain ke hamara Jism bimariyo ka Ghar Hai sahi hai par Yeh Toh yeh toh sochiye Ok Har Kisi Ko Ek Hi Bimari kyu nahi hoti aapko agar koi Bimari hai to iski Koi Wajah toh Honge apne aap se puchiye kya waja Hai Aap Ki Bimari ka Wajah Pakda Jayega toh Bimari Dur hone mein kitne time Lenge Din Mein Do Teen baar meditate kariye apne aap ko bilkul tandrust visualise kariye Subah ko uthte hi jitni baar ho sake with full of confidence with full of concentration apne aap se boliye I am perfect I am in perfect health aap thik Ho Jayenge apni bimariyo ke baare mein kisi se baat mat kariye Dil Mein a strong belief Paida kariye ke aap bilkul thik hai Khuda na khasta aap theek ho jayenge Meri Duayen aapke Saath Hain

English poetry

1)
Hatred has the bad skill
To kill
Every Good Feeling
Of a human being
Hatred creates wrath
It destroys the heaven and earth.
Allow hatred to recrde
If in your life you want to proceed!

2)
Hatred creates only thirst
Hatred means no trust.
Hatred breaks a heart like a toy
Hatred brings tears not the joy.
Hatred makes distance
Through hatred from life to make the true difference!

Hindi poetry

1)
नफरत से मिलेंगे नफरत ही प्यार कभी भी नहीं!
बात यह है पते की,
सौ टका सही!

2)
प्यार ना दे सके मुझे कोई बात नहीं पर नफरत करना क्यों सिखाए बताओ तो?

English dialogue

1)
Someone – ‘ Hatred destroys only!’
Another one – ‘ yes hatred destroys all the good feelings, it destroys a future even, it destroys a life rather!

Hindi dialogue

1)
एक इंसान – ‘नफरत से हासिल क्या कर लोगे बताओ तो?
दूसरा इंसान – ‘कुछ और नहीं, बस नफरत ही!’

English inspirational message

1)
Allow the feeling of love to control your life not the feeling of hatred my friend!

Hindi inspirational message

1)
नफरत की आंधी बस तबाही लाती है और कुछ नहीं मेरे दोस्त, दूर रहो नफरत से तुम!

English mentoring message

1)
Hatred is a negative feeling undoubtedly.
The intensity of the particular feeling of hatred can make far difference in the life of someone very easily! It is a feeling of reaction what’s the time but it acts like a destroyer. It resides in a mind and kills all the good feelings eventually. It transmutes a heavenly creature into a demon. But no one should suppress the feeling of hatred, just try to release it carefully and in a decent way.

Hindi mentoring message

1)
नफरत एक बुरी बला है, जो सिर्फ और सिर्फ तबाही लाती है जिंदगी मेंl इससे कुछ भी अच्छा हासिल नहीं होताl पर यह बेवजह जिंदगी में पैदा हो भी नहीं सकताlइसलिए हमेशा चौकन्ना रहना चाहिए और जो आपकी जिंदगी में जहर घोल रहा है उससे दूर रहना चाहिएl पर किसी से भी नफरत कभी भी नहीं करना चाहिए, कभी भी नहीं, किसी से भी नहीं!

English poetry

1)
No, you can not shop success
But you can bring the flood of success
by the cost of your sweat and blood obviously.

2)
You can only access the success
if you are not an impatient or a lazy one. Understood my friend!.

Hindi poetry

1)
कामयाबी उस पेड़ का फल है, जिस पेड़ को सिर्फ और सिर्फ खून पसीने से ही सीखा जा सकता है!

2)
स्मार्टफोन और टेलीविजन से सिर्फ रेडिएशन मिलते हैं, कामयाबी नहीं!

English dialogue

1)
Someone – ‘They are Hi-Tech tech people of today’s era,they want instant success even!’
Another one – ‘ Which is absolutely impossible!’

Hindi dialogue
1)
एक इंसान – ‘आज के बच्चे मुफ्त में कामयाबी हासिल करना चाहते हैं!’
दूसरा इंसान – ‘जो कि बिल्कुल ही नामुमकिन है!’

English inspirational message

1)
Success is a priceless modality but you can access it definitely. Hey don’t delay, try to get it – right now.

Hindi inspirational message

1)
कामयाबी पसीने से लतपत हाथों से ही पकड़े जा सकते हैं – समझ गए?

English mentoring message

1)
Everybody needs success, everybody wants success as well. But it is very difficult to get success undoubtedly. But it is not an impossible task definitely. Yes, you can get success but not easily indeed. Your hard work, patience and tireless effort can bring success in your life only.

Hindi mentoring message

1)
कामयाबी हासिल करना आसान नहीं – हां सच है ये,
पर इतना कठिन भी नहीं है यह, जितना हम समझते हैं!
पर हां कामयाब होने के लिए हमारे लिए मेहनती होना बहुत जरूरी होता हैl और हमारे लिए धीरज धरना भी जरूरी होता हैl
क्योंकि कामयाबी धीरे धीरे हासिल होती है, एकदम से हासिल होने वाली चीज कामयाबी नहीं है!

English poem
1)
Feel free to make yourself free from every negativity.
This is the one and only key of the door of your own destiny.
2)
Freedom is the oxygen – the main ingredient of air – just breath it.
Make the freedom -the main ingredient of your life and live it.
Hindi poem
1)
किसी का हक चीनो नहीं पर जिओ हक से,क्योंकि आजाद हो तुम, क्योंकि आजाद है सभी!
2)
आजादी जिंदगी है या नहीं पता नहीं,
पर आजादी बिना जिंदगी जिंदगी नहीं!
English dialogue
1)
Someone – ‘ Everybody should make his or her mind free from clutters first.’
Anotherone – ‘ Yes, otherwise no one can realise the real meaning of freedom actually.’
Hindi dialogue
1)
एक इंसान – ‘आजादी का सच्चा मतलब है जियो और जीने दो!’
दूसरा इंसान – ‘पर बहुत कम लोग यह समझते हैं!’
English inspirational message
1)
Freedom means freeness from any kind of negativity actually.
Hindi inspirational message
1)
जिन बातों से तुम्हें तकलीफ हो,उनसे अपने आप को आजाद कर दो!
English mentoring message
1)
You have so many birthrights. Freedom is one of them. But it is very important in your life. Without freedom life is nothing but a hell.
But everybody should apply the right of freedom carefully. Otherwise it will transmute the life as a hell.
Hindi mentoring message
1)
हमारी जिंदगी में आजादी का बहुत महत्व हैl आजादी का सच्चा मतलब किसी का हक छीन लेना नहींl आजादी का सच्चा मतलब मन की आजादीl विचारों के आजादी, जो कुछ भी बुरा है दुनिया में उन सब से आजादीl आजादी का मतलब अच्छा खाना पीना नहीं बल्कि सद्बुद्धि का दूसरा नाम है आजादीl

1st scene

Day/int/a hut
A lady is moping the floor. Her husband is sitting in front of her, doing something. Suddenly their teenage girl takes entry and she is crying.
She enters in the bedroom. Her mum goes there she say something to her mum and mum starts crying.
Then the mum returns to her husband and says him -‘  Hamari beti roz raat ko sauch ke liye Nikalti Hai Par Aaj uska tabiyat kharab hai pet Ki Bimari Hai pet Mein dard ho rahe the isiliye Din Mein Hi Sauch ke liye bahar jana Pada aur kuch ladkon Ne use …..’ She starts crying.
The father – ‘ tum kyu Sath nahi gayi?’
Mother – ‘ phir ye kaam Kaun Karta?’
Father – ‘ ise Roz Roz pet Ki Bimari Kyun Lagti Hai?’
Mother -‘ kyu Lagti Hai Kya tumhe nahi pata? Gaon Ke Log Sab Khule Mein Soch Karte Hain. Jis Se Bimari phaelti hai. Gaon ke sab log Aksar bimar padhte Hain Tum Bhi Main Bhi Hamari beti bhi.’
Father – ‘ is samasya ka ek hi HAL hai. Ghar Mein sochalay Bana lena. Par itne paise kam se kam mere paas  to nahin hai. kaise banaye ghar mein apne liye ek sauchalay?’
Mother – ‘ upar wale kya  Hum Garib hai isiliye Hum bimar padhte rahenge Aur BeIzzat Hote Rahenge?’
2nd scene
Day/int/bedroom of a hut
That lady is lying on the bed. Suddenly her husband comes there.
Man – ‘ kya hua?’
Wife – ‘ aur kya ye pet Ki Bimari to Jaan Leke hi Khatam Hogi.’
Man – ‘ Nahi Ab Nahi. Modi ji ab Har Ghar Mein Sarkari paise Se sauchalay Bana Denge. Ab Koi bimar nahi padega Kisi ko beIzzat bhi nahi Hona Padega. Sab ke ghar mein Apna sauchalay hoga. Main abhi Ghoshna sunke aa raha hoon.’
3rd scene
Day/ext/a ground in a village
Some people are standing there and listening the announcement – ‘ab aapke ghar mein Apna sauchalay hoga. Modi ji Sarkari paise se aap ke liye aap ke ghar mein sauchalay Bana Denge.’
A lady – ‘ Bhala Ho Modi ji ka.’
4th scene
Day/int/a hut
Some people are making the toilet which cement brick etc. And the father mother and daughter of the first scene are standing there happily.
5th scene
Day/int/a hut
That lady is mopping the floor and husband is sitting in front of her and doing something  just like the first scene and their daughter walks out from the bedroom and walks in to the toilet happily.
Mother – ‘ Hamari beti Kitni khush hai. Soch ke liye use Bahar Nahin Jana Padta. woh bimar bhi nahi padati. uski Izzat Khatre Mein Bhi Nahi padti. Bhala Ho Modi ji ka. unhone Ham Sab ke ghar mein sochalay bana diya hai.’
Father – ‘sahi me.’

Kal Gaya Tha Main Ek Babaji ke paas. Suna Tha k un ke paas sare problems ke solution hai. dekhne gaya tha ki kahan tak sahi hai yeh.

Sabse Pehle Ek naujawan Ladka Babaji ke samne Aaya aur Kaha Babaji Meri Ye samasya Hai Ke kisi bhi ladki ko main propose Karta Hoon toh Woh mujhe joote se marti Hai.
Babaji sunke Bole Tu Ek kaam kar beta Ladkiyon ko sirf Mandir Mein ya phir swimming pool Mein jaake propose Kya Kar.
Sunke Ladka bola is Se Kya ladkiya Maan Jayegi Mujhse Pyar Karne Lage gi? Baba ji Bole uska ka toh pata nahi par tujhe kam se kam  joote Nahi khane padenge Yeh Kya Kaam Hai? Ladka bola main kuch samjha nahi Babaji Bole arey Mandir Mein ya swimming pool mein Koi Bhi ladki Juta pehen ke nahi ja sakti na!
Yeh Ladka Khush Hoke Chala gaya Toh Ek Doosra Ladka Aaya – Kaha  k Baba ji Mera Naam  Chumma chaati Singh hai, Mere samajh mein yeah nahi aata k aaj kal ki ladkiyan kaun si Bhasha samajhti hai! Babaji Bole matlab? Ladka bola unhe  agar balun ke please give me a kiss, toh Thapar Marti Hai, Agar Hindi mai bolu Ek Chumma De De firki Thuppar hi Marti Hai. Kya Karu Baba ji? Babaji Bole tu mangta kyu Hai Pagle? diya kar. Ladka bola main kuch samjha nahi Babaji. Baba ji Bole main Samjha deta hoon Tu ladkiyon ke samne Ja Ke bol Aankhen bandh kar lo main tumhe Ek free gift dunga. phir jaise hi Woh Aankhen bandh kar lenge Tu unke Hoton mein kiss Kar Ke Bhag Jana.
Yeh Salah sunne ke baad Ladka Bada khush ho gaya I aur jhumte Huye Nachte huye Chala Gaya.
Ek Aur Ladka Baba Ji Ke Samne Aake baith Gaya aur bola main  26 saal ka ho chuka hoon par abhi tak Mujhe Kisi Se Pyar nahi hua. Babaji Bole kyu apne aap ko Barbad karne pe tule ho beta? Pyar Ke Baad hii Aata Hai barbadi ka mausam.Chahe shadi Kar Ke Barbad ho jao ya phir breakup Karke. Barbadi Tumhari nischit Hai!
Ab Ek Gabru Jawan Aaya aur bola Babaji Mein Chahta Hoon K Meri hone Wali biwi Mujhse dare. Kya ye possible hay baba ji?
Baba ji Bole Teri Hone Wali biwi kis cheez se darti hai beta? Ladka bola Sirf chuhe se. Babaji Bole Tera kaam Aasan Ho Gaya beta. Kyunki shadi Hote hi Har EK Mard Ki Tarah Tu Bhi Chuha Hi ban jayega.
Ab ayi agle ladke ki Bari – wo ake bola Babaji Meri Biwi ki mummy Mere Ghar Ek Mahina Rahane ke liye aa rahi hai uske Aate hi ghar mein Jaise Andhera Cha jata hai.
Babaji Has Ke Bole chahe andhi aaye, Toofan Aye zalzala aye ya Teri sasu maa dat Ke Samna toh karna padega beta. Ek baat Aur bhi hai – ek mahine ke liye tere Bijli Ka kharcha kam ho jayega beta, Samjha kar.
Ye Banda Chala Gaya Ek dusra Aaya bola Baba ji Meri Biwi koi kaam nahi karti aur naukranion ke pagar Dete Dete Mein Kangal ho raha hoon. Koi solution Bataye please.
Babaji Bhole Tu naukranion Ko ghurna Shuru kar de, Teri biwi Khud UN Sab Ko Bhaga Degi.
Ab Ek Ladka ya bilkul Salman Khan ki Jaisi body hai uski. Aake bola Baba ji Mein fauj Mein Bharti Hona Chahta Hoon. Baba Ji Ne Kaha toh roka Kisne hai beta? Kahin Tu gay Toh Nahi Hai? Lakha bola nahi nahi Aisi koi baat nahi hai.darasal fauj me srif nidar log Hi Bharti ho sakte hain, par main toh apni biwi aur sasuma Dono se bahut Darta Hoon.
Babaji Bole kya tera baap Bibi Ka Gulam nahi tha? Ladka bola bilkul tha. Babaji Bole aur tu uuse Dekh Dekh Ke Bada Hua Hai Phir Bhi shadi karne ki Himmat dikha chuka hai yeh kya kaam hai? ja Beta fauj Tere Intezar Mein Hai.
Ab Ek Ladka Aaya aur kaha Meri Biwi Mujhe Nalayak samajhti hai kya kare baba ji?
Babaji Bole Meri Biwi Bhi Mujhe nalayak hi samajhti thi, aur uus problem ki solution dhund ne Ke Liye Hi main Sadhu Bana tha par koi solution dhund nahi Paya Aaj Tak. Babaji chup ho gaye.

 tum sundar ho smart ho Khushi Ka dusra Naam Ho Tum Tum pyar ho, Daya Ki Murat Ho  Anokhe Ho tum Ek Nayab Hira Ho Gulab Ke Phool Ho Moti Ho . Tum kabhi bhi  bahut jyada nahi ho  tum Hamesha  santulit ho. Khuda Ke Banai Hui is Jahan Mein Tum Se Khoobsurat koi bhi nahi Kuch Bhi Nahi. Tum Anmol Ho. Tumhara Anokha pan Kisi bhi tarike se Napa nahi ja Sakta. Tumhare hair products Kis Tarah Ke kapde to pehan ke ho Kitni ladkiya Tumse Jalti hai Kitne ladke Tumhe Pana Chahte Hain social medias main Tumhare followers kitne hai maths test main tumhe kitne marks Mele hey in SAB Baaton pe Tumhara Mol depend nahi karta Tum Anmol Ho Chahe Tum Duniya Ki Sabse Bada model ho Chahe school se nikal gaye ho Chahe Miss World Ho ya phir nahi ho Chahe Tumhe Tumse Pyaar Hai ya phir Unki Taraf Dekhte Huye Tumhe dar lagta hai Tum Anmol Ho Socho Yeh Aurat hi hai Jisne Duniya Ko Badal Dala Tumhe bhi hai woh Shakti go power apni Shakti ko jagao apni kabiliyat Ko dhund nikalo Badal Dalu Duniya Ko phir se Koi Agar Tumhe nicha Dikhane ki koshish kare toh uski Baaton Pe Yakeen nahi karna us Dushman hai samajh na woh Jhoota hai Garv se bolo I am awesome Kyuki tum awesome hi ho sach mein sahi mein

Aksar Dekha Gaya Hai Ki Jis Jagah pe aam tara Se Koi Aata Jata nahi, Wahan Ajeeb Ajeeb Si cheezen Pade Rehte Hain. Dekh Ke lagta hai ki Wahan un cheezo ko isliye Rakha Gaya Hai taki un Par Kisi Ki Nazar Na Pade.
1.

Jaise ke massive Bosnian spheres Kahi example Le Lijiye. Aam tarha Se Dekha Jaye toh insaano se koi bhi golakar bastu taiyar karna Aasan Nahi Hota. Isiliye Jab Hame Pata Chalta Hai Ki Basniya ke ek jungle mein bahut Sare golakar bastu Pade Huye Hai, tab tajjub Toh Hona Hi padta hai. Aur yeh golakar BasTuen Toh Sach mein bilkul Anokhe Hain. Inka wajan hay 30 tan se jada. 2.4 se lekar 3 metre chaore Hai Yeh. Aur in Ka Rang Hai Laal Jis Se Ye Pata Chalta Hai Ki in mein bahut sara iron maujood hai. rchaeologists sam osmanagich ka Manna hai Yeh gol gol Patthar Kisi Prachin sabhyata Ki Nishani Hai.
Unke is theory pe Hasne wale log bhi bahut hain. Unka Ye Kehna Hai Ke Ye Patthar aise hi regular process se Bane Hain aur in Mein Koi Bhi Khaas baat nahi hain. Halaki Itihas Gawah Hai Ke purane Zamane Mein Haathon se gol gol Patthar Banaye Jate thhe. Jaise ke Costa Rica stones Haathon se banaye gaye the 500 – 1500 BC ke bich me.
2.
Chilie ke Atacama Desert Duniya Ke sabse dry places me Se Ek Hai. Sirf ISI wajah se yeah Shuru se Hi logo ko Akarshit Karta Aaya Hai. Us Paar 1990 Mein is Marusthal ke beech o beech ban gaya ek giant hand. Dekh Ke Lagta Hai ke Kisi Rakshas ko Mar ke yahan Zinda gad diyaa gaya tha, Jo Kisi Tarah Se Zinda Ho Ke phir se Hamari Zindagi Mein Wapas Aane ki koshish kar raha hai!!!
3.
Samudra aur marusthal – Ek Doosre Ke bilkul opposite mortalities hain. Marusthal Mein Pani Ka abhav Hota Hai aur Samudra Bhara pura Hota Hai Pani Se Hi. Isliye Samudra Mein Rehne wale praniyo ka marusthal Mein Jaana Sambhav nahi Hai. Par aisa hi kuch hua hai. Chile ke Atacama Desert me Samudra Tal se 40 metre upar ek hill hay, jiska naam hay – Cerro Vienna whale hill.2010 main Wahan Rsta taiar Kiya ja raha tha, aur Avishkar ho gaya ke wahan pe 40 whales aur bahut Sare dolphins, seals, aur bahut Sare samudrik praniyo ka Fossil mila hai jo ki 6 – 9 million saal Purana Hai. Ab saawal ye udta hai k woh sab samudrik prani k dead bodies wahan paucha Kaise aur Kaise Bana Woh Parvat samudrik praniyo Ka Ek kabarsthan? Is Sawal Ka Jawab Shayad Itihas Ke Siva Kisi Ko Nahi Maloom.
4.
Little alien Basta hai USA aur  Rachel Nevada ke Beech Mein Kahin Pe. Yahan Par Ek Motel hai Jahan Aap Ko Kuch Ajeeb Si Suvidhaen Milenge, kuch Sach Ka aap Samna Karenge jo aapko kahi aur Nahi Milne wala. Google Earth Mein dekhiye srif Bald mountain ke Siva Koi dusra hindering factor Aapko nahi milega. Yeah motel ufo-ologists ka bhi bahat kaam ka hay. Aap bhi iska istemal kar sakte hain. Is pe chad ke Aasman Ki Taraph Dekhiye, yaahan ka Aasman Itna Saf Hai Ke Aap Ko Puri Cosmos Dikhai Denge.
5.
Argentina ki Capital city ke 25 miles Dakshin mein Nadi ke kinare Ek Ajeeb O Garib cheez ki Avishkar Hui Hai. Woh cheez 3.3 M lambi hai aur uski height hai 1.5 m.  Par Uske weight ka aap andaza nahi laga Payenge. Thik hai Chaliye Bata Dete Hain – 2 tan. Kyu tajjub ho gaye na? Nadi ke kinare Kisi Fossil ka paya jana apne aap Mein Ek rahasya Hai. Yeh cheez dikhne mein Ek Ande ki Tarah hai. Isliye Kisi Ka marna hai ke yeh Kisi free historical dinosaur Ka Anda hai Toh Kisi Ka Yeh Kehna Hai K yeah Kisi armadillo ka Fossil hai. Lekin Assal Mein Yeh Hai Kya Cheez yeh Kisi ko nahi pata.
6.
Richard the 3d England ke Akhri Raja Jo Jang ke maidan mein Dum tore the, Shaheed hue the. Ji haan 1485 ko  Battle of Bosworth Field main Unki Maut hui thi. Unke Jaise Mahan Hasti ke kabarsthan kahan hona chahiye? aap kya kehte hain? Toh suniye – Ek car park me khare Hoke kisi ko laga ke woh Richard III k Kabar par Khade hain, baad mein Usi Jagah pe ek skeleton  Mili, DNA test Karke dikha Gaya ke han vo Richard III ka hi skeleton hai. Aap ko lag raha hai Ki Yeh Ek Kahani Hai Jee Nahi Huzoor Yeh sat pratisad Sach Hai.
चाहे मुझे गाली  दे दो पर अंकल अंकल तो मत बुलाओ प्लीजl एक बुड्ढे को उसके बुढ़ापे का एहसास दिलाना जरूरी है क्या?😢😴😕😠
आज की औरत – तू बीवी है किसी और की, तुझे चूमता तेरा जीजा और देवर है!
Today’s woman – takes mangalsutra from her husband and practices Kamasutra with her brother in law!😯😉😊😆😬😀😁😂😅☺😃😄👑

काश मैं पति ना होकर देवर होता

तो मेरी बीवी मुझ पर भी जमकर अपने प्यार की बारिश कर देती!
😢😴

बीवी टीवी📺 देखती है नौकरानी काम🗝 करती है
पर मैं दोनों को फीस💲 और किस💋👄 दोनों provide करता हूं😍
A film by Nathu Singh
1 st Friend – aaj Aakhri Din Hai.2nd Friend – Teri Zindagi Ka?3rd Friend – Phir Marne se pahle Tu sari sampatti Hum Dono k naam karde.1st Friend – Meri Zindagi ka Nahin Hum Tino ke exam ka Aakhri Din hai aaj.2nd Friend – humm3rd Friend – toh phir?1st Friend –  exam Ke Baad Kya Karenge?2nd Friend –  Tu Agar finance Karega to teeno Milke movie dekh Lenge.3rd Friend – good idea.1st Friend – Dhat Tere Ki. job Karoge ke business?2nd Friend – paise To Sare jua Mein Haar Gaya business Karunga Kaise?3rd Friend – mere paas paise Shuru se hi nahi the.1st Friend – isiliye Tu Hum Se Udhar liya Karta Tha aur Aaj Tak chukaya nahi.3rd Friend – job Karunga Sab chuka dunga.2nd friend ( to the first friend) – Tu business kar aur Hum Dono ko Naukri Pe Rakh Le..1 st Friend – business Karunga par without investment ke.2nd Friend – tino Milke Coaching Centre kholte Hain, Sab Ko Parayenge.3rd Friend – aa Nahin Sab Ko Pata Chal Jayega ki hum log almost Anpad hai.1st Friend – ha ha ha. Khaas Karke Tu.2nd Friend –  Phir Jasoos Ban Jaate Hain. Is country mein to bas ghotala hi ghotala hai.3rd Friend – isisse achha escort service Khol Lete Hain.1st Friend – Tujhse aur Umeed Kya Kiya Ja sakta hai?2nd – Scott Ban Gaye to  Maje bhi Karenge paise bhi Milenge.1st Friend – Main Chahta Hoon Ke Logon Ko tension Dunga Phir solution bataunga.2nd Friend – FIR mobile se video bana aur WhatsApp group mein share kar.3rd Friend – nahi YouTube channel mein.Then we will show the argument continues…  
नहीं दोस्तों, मैं तुम पर जान कुर्बान नहीं कर सकता, घर बर्बाद कर सकता हूं! चाहो तो कोई आगे आओ, मेरी बीवी को लेकर भाग जाओ, उसके साथ घर बसाओ! मैं रोकूंगा नहीं!😉😁😀
पत्नी (फोन पर) – बारिश हो रही है रास्ते में खड़ी हूं छतरी लेकर आ जाओ मुझे लेकर चलो!
पति – नहीं जा सकता, तुम्हारी बहन मेरे सीने में सर रखकर सो रही है! उसका कुछ तो ख्याल करो, छोटी बहन है तुम्हाारी!😉😊😀😁😃😬😅😆😄☺😂
Santa –  तू घर जमाई कैसे बन गया रे?
Banta – क्या करूं? मेरे साले की खूबसूरत बीवी यहीं पर जो रहती है – मेरे और उसके ससुराल में!😊😉☺😄😆😅😃😬😂😁😀
दुनिया में सबसे सुखी मर्द वह होता है जिसकी बीवी बदसूरत, अनरोमांटिक और पड़ोसन खूबसूरत, रोमांटिक हो😉😊😀😁😂😬😃😅☺😄😆
क्योंकि ससुर भी कभी जमाई था! इसलिए जमाई जब भी ससुराल आते हैं, ससुर अपने अनमैरिड बेटी को उसके नानी के पास छोड़ आते हैं!😉😀😁
संता – क्या कहूं जिसे देख कर मन मछला, वह मेरी बीवी की बड़ी दीदी निकली!😢😴
बनता –  पैर छूने का बहाना तो मिल गया! मौका हाथ से जाने ना देना!😊😉
India is not a country only, it is the mother of Civilization actually. We had invented zero. We made the entire world educated. The first university of the world was made in India. We have been providing so many good things to the universe constantly. It is the very country of India which had realised firstly the importance of a pollution free environment. Our nation is our pride. But it is also true that we Indians are generating 25000 to 30000 tones of plastic wastage everyday. Yet, we are not able to collect the 40% of this plastic wastage . This statistic is a stigma for us. But we already have declared war against this enemy of environment. We are fighting tirelessly also. But, we have to comprehend that this battle requires the weapons of total Social awareness and proper education as a matter of fact.
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Written by mithu
Written by me. https://unikolom.com/…/english-short-stories-the-colour-you/ https://unikolom.com/…/english-short-stories-the-pat-perfu…/ https://unikolom.com/…/indiagodspeed-of-the-goddess-of-vic…/ https://unikolom.com/…/2019/01/12/they-have-double-meanings/
https://www.bloglovin.com/@b…/is-csgo-account-really-helpful
http://personality.expertscolumn.com/…/the-colour-you-like-…
http://personality.expertscolumn.com/…/the-pat-perfume-opte…
http://personality.expertscolumn.com/…/your-deary-fruit-tha…
http://personality.expertscolumn.com/…/the-popular-liquors-…
http://personality.expertscolumn.com/…/the-preferred-tablet…
http://personality.expertscolumn.com/…/louise-hay-the-ladyw…
http://personality.expertscolumn.com/…/the-makeup-of-an-ind…
http://personality.expertscolumn.com/…/three-regiments-of-i…
Written by me

https://www.facebook.com/TheCalcuttaMotions.official/

https://www.storynyou.com/story/my-last-meeting-with-strange-i-fall-in-love-with/

https://www.storynyou.com/story/dost-jo-dosts-say-kuch-jada-they-19

https://youtu.be/MfWU3qWM9vE

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCL-pRQxpy-3Yd8l5JBdWodQ

1)

Top 10 attractions of uppsala Sweden

10) Uppsala is a historical city of Sweden which contains the 16th-century royal castle

Uppsala slott. This castle  played important roles in different areas of history. It was a part of famous ’30 years war’ also. In 1654, the abdication of Queen Kristina was announced by the Swedish government from this castle only. In 1702 it was damaged by fire very seriously. Uppsala slott is the site of today’s Uppsala Art Museum. The medieval Archbishop’s Castle was near the Archbishop’s Palace of present day too.

 

9) In the year of 1787, Sweden’s King Gustav made the botanical garden of uppsala which is the one the attractions of Uppsala University as well.

This particular University maintains 2 satellite botanical gardens. The older one is the original one, created on 1655, known as Linnaean Garden. And the other one is called –  Linnaeus Hammarby.

 

8)

There are 11 subject libraries in the uppsala University of uppsala, Sweden. Among them, the Carolina Rediviva is the older one and the principal one as it is located on the older building actually. It is holding so many manuscripts, musical scores, pictures,  maps, books, periodicals etc.

 

7)

The old town is housed on 71 kilometre north from Stockholm, which is the capital city of Sweden as a matter of fact. It is the house of uppsala municipality as well.

 

6)

The stream Fayrisan was famous as Sala seated in Uppland. In the 17th century it was renamed as Fayrisan in the memory of the battle of Fyrisvellir the Icelandic sagas say.

It contains two weirs and a  fish ladder.

Every year on 30th April students navigate here with homemade rafts.

5)

The traditional city of uppsala of Sweden is the house of the concert musiken hus also ( since 1 September 2007).

The meaning of the name is – the house of music actually.

 

4)

Though Uppsala of Sweden is famously known as a traditional City and a historical City, but it contains so many modern Lego houses also, which are also attracting the visitors of uppsala Sweden now a days.

 

3)

The famous Eastern mound, Middle Mound and Western Mound of Gumla uppsala Sweden are the national Royal symbols of older Sweden, as they have the flavour of 5th and 6th century actually. Yet, as per the mythology they are related with the names of three Gods –   ThorOden and Freyr.

 

2)

Gamla is a village located at the outside of uppsala Sweden. The population of this village is not so much at all but it is very much important religiously, economically and politically as well.

 

1)

Uppsala Cathedral Domkyrka is the national Church of Sweden. It is situated between the stream Fyris and the University hall of the Uppala university.

The primate of Sweden houses here.

It is famous for the burial site of the king Eric IX also.

2)

Top 5 tourist attractions of Helsinki Finland

1)

There are five Islands which are joined by bridges and there is an Orthodox Church is designed and stationed as the centre feature – it’s really a spectacular view of Suomenlinna Church of Helsinki, Finland.  it was casted on 1854 as  the highest point which is surrounded by other Fortress yet got the cathedral status on 1891. It contains the largest Bell of Finland also.

In the year of 1929 the central dome of the Church was doubled as it was decided to use as a Lighthouse as well.

2)

Ateneum is  not an ordinary Art Museum  in Helsinki,Finland actually. It is solely  housing the maximum number of collections of classical art in the country of Finland. You can see it very near to the central railway station of Helsinki  on the south side of Rautatientori square, in the centre of Helsinki. Another thing to remember about Ateneum is – it is the  Museum which is the one of the three museums forming the Finnish National Gallery also.

3)

The capital city of Finland is Helsinki.  In Helsinki there is a district called  Töölö. Sibelius Park is there. In Sibelius Park  we can see The Sibelius Monument, which is dedicated to the famous composer Jean Sibelius and one of the five top attractions of Helsinki.

4)

In Töölö ( the neighbourhood of Helsinki) we can see the

Temppeliaukion church which is a Lutheran church and known as the Church of the Rock or the  Rock Church too; as because it is made by solid Rock only.

5)

Between the south harbour and Esplanade Park of the eastern side of central Helsinki the market square is located.

The Presidential Palace, the Uspenski Cathedral, the old market hall the ferry ports that is connecting the mainland to the Unesco World Heritage site Suomenlinna – are situated as the surroundings of the square actively.

3)

9  tourist attractions of Novi sad Siberia
1)

It takes almost hundred years to make the  Storm Petrovaradin’s Fortress, which is the one of the chief attractions of Novi sad and the seat of the drunk clock ( the big band indicates the hours and minutes  rein small band here) as well.

2)

History says major cultural and political events and important meetings and  gatherings have been occurring in the particular place – Freedom Square in Novi sad. The

360 degrees of sights on Freedom Square makes this place a tourist attraction definitely.

3)

If you really want to visit the second biggest river of Europe and the Sandy beach then go to see the

Laze at Novi Sad’s Štrand in summer only.

4)

You can go to the bishops place of Novi sad to get the touch of poet Jovan Jovanović Zmaj as well.

5)

Synagogue is an impressive building  and the home of defence and honour which cannot be decimated  by the time or history at all.

6)

History houses in the City Museum and Museum of Vojvodina in Novi sad to make us proud.

7)

Fruška Gora is showcasing the treasures of nature and religious art simultaneously.

8)

The churches, the buildings, the fountains,the mountain of  Karlovci will pip every single piece of bitterness   from your heart forever.

9)

Salaš is ful with beautiful and useful farms.

4)

Top 10 attractions of Puerto Rico

1)

San Juan of Puerto Rico is the second oldest city of America and a UNESCO World Heritage site also.

EI Morro Fort, Fortaleza; the Castillo de San Cristóbal and San Juan Cathedral – these places are the chief attractions of the city.

2)

If you are a nature lover person,  then El Yunque National Forest is waiting for you only. To get the touch of nature and natural beauty, to touch the sky, to enjoy the cooler weather – go there as soon as possible.

3)

The lush centre of Eco tourism in Puerto Rico is Culebra Island (Isla Culebra). It is famous for its hills and beaches actually.

4)

Vieques is not so popular for its beaches only, but it is popular for its beach resorts, hotels, restaurants and galleries also.
5)

For surfing and Whale Watching go to Rincon.  You will be mesmerized by its beaches also.

6)

Luquillo Beach is ideal for a peaceful holiday. Its pollution free and population free place undoubtedly.

7)

Arecibo Radio Telescope (Observatorio de Arecibo) will feature a new World in front of your naked eyes.

8)

Rio Camuy Caves (Parque de las Cavernas del Río Camuy) is the third largest cave system in the world and an indigenous winding for your eyes.

9)

History houses in

Ponce’s Historic City Center with cafes and Park benches.

10)

Isla Verde is inviting you to enjoy the calm water,white beach and modern comfort – all together.

5)

Top 10 tourist attractions of Panama
1)

El Valle de Antón is surrounded by mountains and rainforests.

The weather of this small town is cool and it is is located at the crater of a extinct volcano.  come here for horse riding and walking, come here to watch golden frogs and beautiful waterfalls also.

2)

Beaches, Jungle, beauty of nature and history – they are the residents of  Pearl Islands. And a reality television show provided

Pearl Islands The Fame.

3)

The sharp  peaks of Volcán Barú – the highest point of Panama invite  the adventurous people only. Are you one of them?

4)

Coiba – the largest island in Panama and beautiful sandy beaches are waiting for you only in

Gulf of Chiriqui.

Just fix a meeting right now.

5)

To get the kisses from caldera river and the valley of flowers come to Boquete soon.

6)

Come here in Santa Catalina soon for surfing,  for walking on the beaches,  for making a deep relationship with Coiba National Marine Park also.

7)

The simplicity, the natural beauty of San Blas Islands attract people mostly.

8)

the unspoilt beauty of nature,  the adventurous characteristic and the historical flavour – these are the assets of

Bocas del Toro.

9)

Panama City is a modern city which is enriched with natural beauty actually.

10)

Panama Canal is one of the The Wonders of the modern world which provides Panama money also.

1)

Inspector Tarun Ek bahut hi kaabil Inspector hain. Unke kaam se unke office mein sab log bahut prabhavit the. Is Jagah pe wo naye naye aaye hain. Aate hi apne needar swabhav aur kam karne ke tarike se sabka Dil Jeet liya hai.
Abhi subah ka waqt hai. Inspector Tarun tahqeeqat ke liye Ek Jagah pe Aaye hain. murde ko acchi Tarah Se Dekhne ke bad vo Ek middle age ke Aurat ke pass aake Puchte Hain ” aapke bete ki Umar kya thi?’ Wo aurat Rote Rote bolti Hai ‘satra Sal do Mahine das Din.’ Inspector Tarun Ne Kaha ‘Satra sal?’ Uski maa ne kaha ‘haan satra sal’ phir Inspector ne poochha ‘uska mobile Kitna purana tha?’ Jawab Mila – ‘do mahine pahle kharida tha usne yah wala mobile.’ ‘Ismein Koi kharabi thi?’ ‘Nahin bilkul Nahin.’ ‘Marne se pahle vah kar kya raha tha?’ ‘ mobile pe hi game khel raha tha. Use game khelte Hue dekhne ke bad Jab Main Ghar Se Bahar Nikli, to Ek visfot hone ki awaaze Sunai Diya aur Main Daur Ke Ghar Mein dakhil Hui aur Dekha ki mera beta Mara Pada Hua Hai. uski mobile Ne uski Jaan Le li. Visfot mobile pe hua tha – pata nahin Kaise!’ Vah Rone Lagi. Inspector Tarun Wapas murde ke pass a gaye FIR Kuchh der bad Wapas police station Aa pauchhe.
Kursi Mein baithne ke bad wo Kuchh sochne lage aur apne aap se hi bolane Lage – ‘ mere yahan posting aane ke bad hi shuru hua hai ye Maut Ka Silsila. Srif ladkon Ki Maut Hui Hai. Sab ke sab satra sal ke hi the. Sab Ki Maut mobile mein visfot hone ke Karan Hui Hai. Marne se pahle Sare ladke mobile mein game khel rahe the. mobile alag alag company ke the. alag alag samay pe kharide gaye the, alag alag Jagah se. Kisi Ke Bhi mobile per koi bhi kharabi nahin thi.’
Phir Inspector Tarun Apne junior officer ko cabin mein bulate Hain. Junior officer ke aane ke bad Inspector Tarun usse Kahate Hain – ‘ is file Mein Marne Wale sare ladkon ki email ID Facebook account aur messenger ke details hain. Decode Karke batao Koi game ka link Milta Hai Ki Nahin!’ junior officer file Leke Chala Jata Hai Aur do ghante bad Aakar bolata hai ‘Sir, do ladkon ne ek game app ka link facebook mein share kiya tha. us game app ke developer ki Puri details is file mein hai.’ Inspector Tarun wo file Uske Hath se Lete Hain aur bolate Hain ‘game developer Ek lady hai! Miss Ravina! main is Se Milke Aata Hun Tum Mujhe Raat ke Das Baje phone karna.’
Junior officer thik 10 baje Inspector Tarun ko phone karta hai, par vah bolate Hain -‘ Mera tabiyat theek Nahin Hai, kal baat karunga.’ Vah phone rakh dete Hain, par turant phone baj udta hai. Phone receive Karte he Ek aurat ki awaaz Sunai Deti Hai – ‘kayse ho Tarun?’
– ‘miss Ravina, aap is Waqt!’
– ‘Tumhe Kaise pata chala ki main Ravinaa hi hun!’
– aapka number mere pass saved hai.
– main ne Socha Ki Meri jism ki tarah Awaaz Ko Bhi Tum pahchan Gaye Ho.
– Jism ki tarah matlab?
– pandra sal pahle tune Meri Ijjat luti thi beraham.
– aap game developer hai ya story writer?
– Main Teri Hawas Ki ek Shikar hun.
– Kisi Ne Aap ka rape kiya tha? Sunkar bura laga vaise use saja Toh Mili thi na?
– Nahin tu satra Sal Ka Tha, isliye Tujhe Chhod Diya gaya tha. Main tab tera sal ki thi. Aur main ne ye Pratigya kar liya tha ki Tujhse Badla Lekar hi rahungi.
– aap Kahani Achcha likh Leti Hai Ravina ji. Chaliye bolate rahiye Mujhe maja a raha hai.
– Bade hone ke bad Jab Mujhe Pata Chala Ki Tu Inspector Ban Gaya Hai. To Main game developer ban gai. Per Mujhe yah Maloom nahin tha ki tu hai kahan.
– phir mujhe dhundhne ke liye aapane kya kiya?
– Mujhe Maloom tha ki atmaon Ko Sab Kuchh Pata Hota Hai. isliye maine Khud Khushi kar li.
– wah wah Matlab Ki Main ek bhutni se baat kar raha hun!
– han, marne ke bad Mujhe Tera Pata Chal Gaya. Chahti to Tujhe tabhi Saja de sakti thi. par main chahti thi ki tu mere pass aaye dare. Tujhe apni Galti ka Ehsas Ho.
– iske liye Apne Kya Kiya?
– tere ilaake mein jitne Satra saal Ke Ladke The Sabko Mere game ka link bhej diya. FIR unke mobile per remote control se Bisfot Karke unko Maar Dala Mein Ne.
– ye sayed aap Sach bol rahi hain.
– jaisa main chahti thi Vaisa hi hua. Tu tahkikat karte hue Mere Ghar par aa pahuncha.
– han aaya tha main aapke ghar.
– Ghar par Mere Tera sal ki Umra ki tasvir Dekhkar tu chaunk Gaya, Dar Gaya aur bathroom Mein Chala Gaya.
– main Chauka bhi nahin tha, dara bhi nahin tha. bathroom jaane ki jarurat pad Gai thi isliye bathroom gaya tha.
– Tere bathroom mein Jaate hi main ne tere mobile par Mere game ka app install Kar Diya.
– keya?
– han Ab Tu mar.
mobile per bisfot hota hai aur Inspector Tarun sofe Se Gir Jaate Hain.
Tab unhe Dikhai deta hai ki unke Samne khadi hai 30 sal ki Raveena Dheere Dheere 30 sal ki vah Aurat 13 sal ki Ladki Mein tafdil Ho Jaati Hai Aur jor se hastey Lagti Hai yah dekhne ke bad Tarun Dam Tod Dete Hain.
Tab Ravina bolti hai aaj mujhe Mukti Mil Gai Aur vah adrish Ho Jaati Hai.

2)

In the state of Kerala there is a very famous temple – Padmanabha Swamy Temple. The basement of this Temple contains a huge amount of gold – we all are very much aware of this fact.
But it is very much possible that there are some other temples situated in some other places, which are also containing treasures in their basements. But we are not aware of their treasures yet.
See, history says that in ancient time India was a very very very rich country indeed. Mohammed Bin Kasim was the first foreigner who came here, attacked our country and took a huge amount of wealth from our country. Then so many people come here, attracted us and took money from us and left the country. Then the kings and the rich people of our country started making basements in the the temples just to use them as treasures. But later on Mughals and other foreign warriors understood this trick and started destroying temples just to find out the basement treasures actually. But some of the temples are still containing the basement treasures. perhaps the Srirangam Temple of Kerala is one of them. Most probably it is the biggest Hindu temple of India. It took 4 kilometres of the space to make this Temple.
Anyways in the year of 2005 the temple authority came to know about its basement for the first time. In the basement area, three secret rooms were discovered one by one. In the first room there was a granite wall. They broke the wall and took entry in the second room. They saw a mark in the floor. They digged the floor and discovered a tunnel which guided them into the third room.
But we the common people of India have no idea about the real pictures of those three rooms. We don’t know that are these rooms empty or they are being used as treasures!
As per our knowledge, there is another path in the third room, which was opened and closed by the temple authority letter on – don’t know why!
In the threshold of the first room we can see a mark of a door. As per our presumption this mark indicates a treasure only.
Padmanabha Swamy Temple and Srirangam temple both of the temple have almost same structural features and both temples are dedicated to Lord Vishnu only, that’s why also we assume that both of the temples are containing basement treasures actually.
We have so many questions in our minds. What was the actual reason to make these rooms in the basement? If there is no treasure in the basement then why the temple authority has closed the last room and why they keep us far away from the basement area of this particular temple?
Another thing – there is a very old golden structure in the ceiling of the temple which also indicates treasures as a matter of fact

 

3)

Virupaksha Temple of Karnataka is a Perfect combination of architecture and scientific efficiency indeed. It is the oldest temple in Vijayanagar. Our myth says Lord Rama was one of the devotees of this temple. The big Gopuram of this temple was made by King Krishna Dev Ray in the year of 1510.

It is a beautiful temple undoubtedly. But today we are going to educate you with a very interesting  fact of this temple. 

There is a small hole in the basement area of this temple. Sunlight comes through the hole and makes an upside down reflection of the Gopuram in the wall. It’s not a miracle, it’s an engineering technique, which is very modern. It is designated by modern world as the pinhole technology. Yes it is a modern technology which was used in this temple thousands of years ago! But very few people know about this interesting fact of this particular temple.

Through the hole of the basement of this temple sun light comes after touching the Gopuram that’s why we can see the reflection of Gopuram in the wall. In 1827 people started taking photos with the help of a camera by using this technique only.  But the makers of this particular temple of ancient India were the real inventors of this particular technique undoubtedly. 

The British rulers of our country had changed our history and hided this like of so many facts and truth about our country from the rest of the world.

 

भाग दौड़ की ज़िन्दगी, अपने लिए टाइम न निकाल पाना, रातों को जागना, बेवक़्त खाना खाना, घर के खाने से दूर रहना, स्पाइसी और ऑयली खाना ज्यादा खाना, stress, tension, work pressure का बुरा असर, धुप में निकलने से अल्ट्रावायलट रौशनी का बुरा असर, computer, smartphone,television से निकले हुए radiation का बुरा असर — आज की तारीख में हर कोई इन सारी प्रोब्लेम्स से उलझा हुआ है, हमारी young generation के लिए ये कॉमन प्रोब्लेम्स बन गयी है। इसका सब से बुरा असर उनकी त्वचा पर पड़ता है। इससे त्वचा की रंगत उड़ जाती है, उनकी चेहरे से रौनक उड़ जाती है। चेहरे पर दाग धब्बे पड़ जाते हैं। फेस की स्किन का glow खत्म हो जाता है

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1)
Yeah, it was me, a teenager school going girl, walking on the street, not walking only but almost running – eager to attain the first period from the very beginning but suddenly stopped by watching something.- there was a small tea stall beside the road full with few customers of very young age. They were sitting and standing here and there and very much busy with an argument – all of them.
One of them was standing in front of a bench and talking very loudly took a sudden back step and his shoe was about to take the life of a small creature – a rat. He was not aware about the presence of the small creature actually. Anyways, the small creature was fortunate enough as it did not died at that time. Because, there was another man who was sitting in one of the benches and jumped quickly and threw away the rat from beneath the shoe and saved its life successfully. That kind hearted man made his own fingers insured by doing this. I saw the pain in his face from the distance.
After this incident I was absolutely unable to stop thinking about him. Whole day my mind was busy to show me the pictures of this incident again again and again. The very next day I saw him again in the same place same time and discovered the fact that two of his fingers were fractured. That teenager girl was feeling pride and respect from core of her heart for that unknown person and started looking for him daily.
Not daily actually but six days of a week definitely. And twice a day obviously. One day he noticed me. Oh, that was our first look exchange! Can’t tell you how I was feeling! Eventually he started watching me in a regular basis. One day I realised the fact ‘He waits for me’! Oh, what a feeling! I asked to myself – ‘Is it love?’ I love him and he loves me? I had no answer at that time. We never talk to each other. But in my dreams, he came and kissed me for several times.
After one year of the first incident, me and my parents went to visit a temple of nearby. In that nearby temple my parents were busy to offer the pooja to Lord Krishna. I was standing just outside of the temple. Suddenly I saw him coming towards the temple along with his mother and niece. I was amazed. Both the ladies took entry into the temple and he came closer to me and said ‘ You are alone here. Will you give me the permission to leave the place or should I stay here with you? I said ‘No, it’s ok. I am alright. You can leave.’ After saying that I realised that he is a stranger. And said myself – what have I done? I have talked with an unknown person! I don’t know his name even. And he was talking to me very casually – as he knows me from my childhood! I turned my face. After few days I was sitting in the balcony of my uncle’s house. Suddenly saw him. He was walking towards the house. Again I turned my face. After that day I never saw him. That was our last meeting….
2)
उस दिन मैं व्हाट्सएप पर कुछ काम कर रही थी, अचानक देखा वह भी ऑनलाइन हैl मैंने उसे वीडियो कॉल किया, उसने रिसीव भी कियाl, पर बोल दिया – ‘ज्यादा देर तक बात नहीं कर पाऊंगाl क्योंकि ऑफिस में हूंl’ वह अपनी आंखों से मुझे देख नहीं रहा था, मेरी पूजा कर रहा थाl मैंने कहा ‘तुम बहुत कोई बड़े ऑफिसर लग रहे हो, और मुझ में कोई परिवर्तन?’ उसने कहा ‘बाद में बताऊंगा अभी फोन रखना पड़ेगा कोई आ रहा हैl’ फोन रखने के बाद में चली गई यादों के सफर में l मेरे साथ ही पढ़ता था वह l उसके पिताजी को अक्सर पागलपन का दौरा पड़ता था l उसकी मां पढ़ी-लिखी नहीं थी, रोजगार नहीं करती थी l इसलिए बचपन से ही उसे गरीबी का सामना करना पड़ता था ! इसलिए वह पढ़ाई करने के साथ-साथ नौकरी की तलाश करने लगा l फिर एक दिन उसने भारतीय नौसेना की वर्दी पहन ली और हम सब से दूर चला गया ट्रेनिंग के लिए l वह एक अच्छा लड़का था l सब उससे प्यार करते थे l
पर वहां जाने के बाद वह सिर्फ मुझे चिट्ठी लिखा करता था, किसी और को नहीं l ट्रेनिंग खत्म होने के बाद वह अपने घर छुट्टी पर आया और मुझसे मिलने मेरे घर भी आ गया l मेरे मम्मी पापा तब घर पर नहीं थे और नौकरानी उसके लिए एक कप कॉफी बना कर चली गई l मैं और वह दोनों घर पर अकेले थे l वह मेरे सामने बैठकर कॉफी पी रहा था और मैं कुछ बोले जा रही थी पर वह सुन नहीं रहा था इसलिए मैं चुप हो गई पर उसने यह भी देखा नहीं कि मैं चुप हो गई l कॉफी खत्म करने के बाद उसने मुझसे कहा कि हमारी एक और दोस्त जूही ने उसे एक चिट्ठी भेजा है जिसमें लिखा है कि ‘सुनने में आया है कि तेरे और चंद्रमा के बीच में लव अफेयर चल रहा है
तो तुम लोग शादी कब कर रहे हो शादी में हमें बुलाओगे ना?’जूही को उसका पता कहां से मिला यह वह बता नहीं पाया l फिर मैंने उससे कहा – ‘जूही से तो मैं दो-तीन महीने से मिले ही नहीं मतलब कि हमारे सारे दोस्त आजकल यह सोच रहे हैं कि तुम्हारे और मेरे बीच में कुछ चल रहा है !’ उसने कहा – ‘कौन क्या सोच रहा है इसकी मुझे कोई परवाह नहीं ! हालांकि मैंने उसे यह लिख दिया है कि मेरे और चंद्रमा के बीच में लव अफेयर चल रहा है और इसका पता ना मुझे है ना उसे हैं और तुम लोगों को इस बात का पता चल गया ! वेलडन, कांग्रेचुलेशन! पर बात कहां तक सच है? क्या सच में तुम्हें भी मुझसे प्यार हो गया है? क्योंकि मैं तुमसे प्यार करता हूं! यस, आई लव यू!” मैं डर गई क्योंकि उस वक्त मेरे और उसके सिवा घर पर कोई और नहीं था!
और मैंने उसकी आंखों में प्यार के साथ-साथ वासना का झलक भी देखा था ! मैं कुछ बोल ही नहीं पा रही थी l फिर मेरी कुछ जवाब देने से पहले मेरे पापा वहां आ गए और फिर मेरी मम्मी भी आ गई l मेरे मम्मी पापा उससे बात करने लगे l फिर चारों मिलकर टीवी देखने लगे l वह बार बार मेरी तरफ देख रहा था और मैं उससे नजर चुरा रही थी l इसके बाद मैं उससे कभी भी अकेले में नहीं मिली l और उसके चिट्ठियों का जवाब देना भी बंद कर दिया क्योंकि वह चिट्ठियों में घुमा फिरा के प्यार जताने की कोशिश करता था l हालांकि मैंने उसे कई बार यह लिख दिया था कि वह सिर्फ मेरा दोस्त है प्रेमी नहीं ! पर पता नहीं क्यों वह यह मानने के लिए तैयार नहीं था !
फिर मैंने महसूस किया कि मेरे मम्मी पापा उसका यहां आना पसंद नहीं करते थे l क्योंकि शायद उसकी आंखों की भाषा उन लोगों ने भी पढ़ लिया था l इसी बीच एक बार दुर्गा पूजा के समय पर मैं अपने कुछ पड़ोसियों के साथ दुर्गा पंडाल के बाहर बैठी थी l अचानक से वह भी अपने भाई के साथ आ गयाl वहां पर जितने लोग दुर्गा मूर्ति के दर्शन करने आए थे वह सब के सब बस मुझी को देख रहे थे l यह देखकर मेरी सहेली को जलन हो रही थी और इसीलिए मेरी सहेली ने मुझसे कहा ‘यहां बैठकर रूप दिखा रही हो?’ यह सुनने के बाद उसने मेरी सहेली से कहl ‘ यह बस यहां पर बैठी हुई है! ग्रुप है इसलिए लोग देख रहे हैं! और यह समझ भी नहीं पा रहे हैं कि दुर्गा मूर्ति आखिर है कहां ! यहां या वहां !’ मेरी सहेली नाराज हो कर चली गईl
सब लोग मुझे देख रहे थे, वह भी मुझे देख रहा था और उसका भाई उसे देख रहा था l फिर उसके भाई ने मेरे कानों में कहा ‘देखो दीदी भैया कितना खुश है, हंस रहे हैं! जब भी भैया आपसे मिलकर जाते हैं तो उनका मूड बिल्कुल फ्रेश हो जाता हैl और ज्यादा दिन तक अगर आप से मुलाकात नहीं होती है ना तो भैया का मूड बिल्कुल खराब रहता हैl’ मैंने उसके सर पर हाथ रखकर बड़े प्यार से कहा ‘इतना लंबा हो गया है! पढ़ाई ठीक से कर रहा है कि नहीं?’ दिन गुजरते गए, और इस तरह मेरी जिंदगी में कोई आए और मैंने अपना दिल उनके हवाले कर दिया l अभी भी मेरा दिल उन्हीं के हवाले है, मैं वापस नहीं ले पाईl इसके बाद मैं अपनी जिंदगी में बहुत ज्यादा बिजी हो गई क्योंकि मेरे पापा जिस फैक्ट्री में काम करते थे वह बंद हो गया l
मैं एक बहुत ही स्वाभिमानी लड़की हूंl बहुत कम उम्र से मैं पैसे कमाती थीl कभी भी अपने मां-बाप पर बोझ नहीं बनी, उनके सामने हाथ नहीं फैलाया! मैं एक लेखिका हूंl लिखना ही मेरा पेशा और नशा, प्रोफेशन और पैशन दोनों हैl जब मैं कुछ लिखती हूं, मुझे अजीब सी खुशी होती हैl मेरे इस हुनर ने सिर्फ पैसा ही नहीं, मेरे और मेरे देश के लिए इज्जत भी कमाया हैl 56 किताबें 7 शॉर्ट मूवी 8 विश्व रिकॉर्ड – मेरी अब तक की जिंदगी की यह है कमाईl खैर यह सब बातें फिर कभीl पापा की फैक्ट्री बंद होने के बाद मेरे सिवा इस परिवार में कमाने वाला और कोई नहीं रहाl एक लेखक को कम से कम उस वक्त बहुत ज्यादा पैसा नहीं मिलता थाl
इसलिए मैं दिन भर लिखती रहती थीl इस तरह से पैसे के साथ-साथ नाम और इज्जत भी हासिल करती थी मैंl पर मेरी इस सफलता ने मेरे सारे अपनों को मुझसे दूर कर दिया सबकी आंखों में या तो जलन या फिर लालच ही दिखाई देने लगे मुझेl अकेलेपन से बचने के लिए मैंने कागज कलम का ही सहारा लियाl और, और ज्यादा सफल होने लगीl ठीक इसी समय उसके उस छोटे भाई का दुर्घटना में अचानक मृत्यु हो गईl वह अंदर से बिल्कुल टूट गया था और मदद मांगने के लिए मेरी और हाथ फैलाया था, मैंने उसका हाथ पकड़ लिया और हर तरह से उसे मदद करने लगीl धीरे-धीरे वह जिंदगी में वापस आयाl इसके बाद एक दिन उसकी मां ने मुझे फोन किया और कहा कि ऊपर वाले ने उनकी बेटी को उनसे छीन लिया और इसी वजह से उनके पति पागल हो गएl
फिर छोटे बेटे का भी देहांत हो गया अब वह बस इतना चाहती हैं कि उनका बड़ा बेटा खुश रहे आबाद रहे जिसे वह पसंद करता है उसी से उसकी शादी हो चाहे वह कोई भी हो, कैसी ही होl दूसरे मजहब की हो, बीमार हो कुछ भी हो! इसके बाद उसके एक दोस्त के बीवी ने मुझे फोन किया और यह कहने लगी कि वह अपने दोस्त से शादी करके बहुत खुश हैंl अगर मैं भी जिंदगी में खुश रहना चाहती हूं तो उन्हीं की तरह मुझे भी अपने किसी दोस्त से ही शादी कर लेना चाहिएl इसके बाद उसने मुझसे आखरी बार प्रपोज किया और जब मैं नहीं मानी तो अगले ही दिन उसने अपनी मां की पसंद की हुई लड़की से बहुत जल्दबाजी में शादी कर लीl पर शादी के बाद भी वह कोई भी समस्या हो मुझे फोन करता था और मदद मांगता था और मैं भी उसे मदद किया करती थीl और इसी दौरान मेरी जिंदगी में उलझाने बढ़ने लगे और एक वक्त ऐसा आया कि मुझे महसूस होने लगा कि मैं एक लिविंग वॉलेट की तरह यूज होने लगी हूंl
एक दिन में बैठ कर रो रही थी, अचानक से उसका फोन आयाl तब मैंने उससे पूछा क्या सच में मुझसे प्यार करते थे उसने कहा – ‘आज भी करता हूं मेरी बीवी अच्छी है पर वह इंसान है पर तुम एक परी हो परी!’ यहां तक सोचा तो अचानक से फोन बज उठा – उसी का फोन है! दोनों एक साथ हंस पड़ेl फिर उसने फोन छोड़ दिया – वह मेरा दोस्त, जो दोस्त से थोड़ा ज्यादा है – थोड़ा सा!!!
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CURRENT G.K.(2007)

MITHUGHOSHAL(M.A.)

INDEX

(1)CURRENT AFFAIRS

(2)DEATH ON  CRICKET  FIELD-(1942-2006)

(3)THE RECORDS OF MOHUN BAGAN  V  EAST BENGAL(2004-2006)

(4)SAF GAMES(10th) FINAL TALLY

(5)NATIONS OF THE WORLD

(6)QUIZE

(7)MEN’S HOCKEY  WORLD CUP AT A GLANCE(1971- 2006)

(8)FACTS ABOUT INDIA

(9)SOFT TARGETS

(10)THE FIVE WORST AIR DISASTERS

(11)WORLD’S TOP TEN POPULAR TOURIST DESTINATIONS

(12) ‘A SMALL SLAM’ ACHIEVERS

(13)US OPEN(2006)

(14)WHERE THEY   REST

(15)SIZZLING SACHIN(1994-2006)

(16)INDIA’S TRIPLE TREATS(1995-2006)

(17)DEPUTY PMs(1947-2004)

(18)PLANET NAMES

(19)HIGHEST SIXTH-WICKET PARTNERSHIPS IN ODIs

(20)ODI CENTURY SCORD ON DEBUT AS CAPTAIN(1975-2006)

(21)DEFENDING LOW TOTALS OF INDIA

(22)HIGHIEST ODI TEAM TOTALS

(23)FASTEST ODI  CENTURIES

(24)COUNTRY SYMBOLS

(25)TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSES(2002-2010)

(26)GREETING PEOPLE

(27)TOP 20 URBAN CENTRES

(28)FOREIGN BORN RULERS

(29)WORLD POPULATION-2005

(30)UN SECRETARIES GENERAL

(31)THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD

(32)RIVERS THROUGH WORLD CITIES

(33)NATIONAL ANTHEMS

(34)ODI HATTRICKS

(35)PIOs IN POWER ABROD

(36)INDIAN NOBEL LAUREATES

(37)THE INTERNATIONAL INVESTIGATING ORGANIZATIONS

(38)THE INTERNATIONAL  TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS

(39)THE ACTIVE  TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS OF INDIA

(40)MAJOR NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS

(41)MYTHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS

(42)MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

(43)ASIAN GAMES(1951-2002)

(44)OLYMPICS(776BC-2004)

(45)7 BOOKER PRIZES WINERS

(46)INDIAN BEAUTY QUEENS

(47)PAST PROFESSIONS OF CELEBRITIES

(48)GYANPITH WINER BENGALIES

(49)BEST SPORTS MOVIES

(50)RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES IN INDIA

(51)WOMEN CHIEF MINISTERS IN INDIA

(52)WOMEN GOVERNRS IN INDIA

(53)OCEANS OF THE WORLD

(54)OCEAN’S GREATEST DEPTHS

(55)DRIEST INHABITED PLACES

(56)WETTEST INHABITED PLACES

(57)DEEPEST LAKES

(58)DEEPEST CAVES

(59)MAJOR SEAS

(60)HOTTEST,COLDEST,DRIEST,WETTEST

(61)WELL KNOWN HORSES

(62)WELL KNOWN DOGS

(63)MAJOR LAKES

(64)NICKNAMES

(65)NAMES: OLD AND NEW

(66)TOP FIVE INDIAN WORLD-BEATERS IN INDIVIDUAL SPORTS

(67) FEW WOMEN RULERS

(68)WORLD’S TALLEST TOWERS

(69)WORLD’S TALLEST BUILDINGS

(70)THE BEST CAREERS OF 2006

(71)BHARAT RATNA WINNERS

(72)AMERICAN ENGLISH

(73)OSCAR WINING PICTURES

(74) 8 GOVERNORS OF RBI

(75)FAMOUS WATERFALLS

(76)LARGEST ISLANDS

(77)PRINCIPAL PEAKS

(78)LONGEST RIVERS

(79)VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

(80)SOLAR  STATISTICS

(81)EARTH DATA

(82)SWARNA KAMAL WINNER BENGALI  FILMS

(83)4 PRESIDENTS OF USA

(84)4 BRITISH PRIME MINISTERS

(85)20 INVENTIONS

 

 

CURRENT AFFAIRS(2006)

– Militants hurled a grenade at the  Iskcon temple in  Imphal at the  night of janmastam1.

– Blast in Shrilanka in the presence of Indian Cricket Team.

– Nandini Satpathi  passed  away.

– Indra Nooyi  is appointed as the  Chief  Executive  Officer of  Pepsi  Co.

– A low – intensity bomb exploded near the railway track at Rajendra Nagar around 9.45 a.m.  hour a  be fore railway minister Lalu Prassad crossed the area on the way to Bhagalpur.

– Cocacola and Pepsi has been baned in Kerala.

– The plan to destroy many planes of England has opened out.

– Poet(Bangladesh) Shamsur Rahaman  passed  away.

– Rumer- ‘miracle  water’ found in Mahim.

– Rumer- idols are drinking milk at temples of India.

– Shenainawaz  Bharatratna  Bismilla  Khan passed  away in  his  beloved  Varanasi.

– Pak cricketer  Wasim Raja passed away.

– A British diesel-powered car has  broken  its  own  land  speed  record, reaching 564 km per hour.

– F-16 fighters jets scrambled to escort a Mumbai-bound plane back to Amsterdam ,triggering a nerve wracking wait on the tarmac that culminated in the arrest of  12 passengers who were apparently seen exchanging mobile phones onboard.

– Mouma-Poulomi wins gold in SAF Games.

– In Oval as a result of ball-tampering argument Pak Cricketers refused to play the match and the umpire Darrell Hair awarded the match to England.

– DHR Clebrates  their 125th anniversary.

– Kolkata Clebrated it’s 316 of birth day on 24th of August.

– LN Mittal has hosted the most expensive wedding affair( the marriage of his daughter Vanisha Mittal with Amit Bhatia in June 2004) of the century.

– Justin Gatlin received an 8year ban from athletics for his cooperation with doping authorities and because of an positive dope test.

– India’s star hockey player Sandeep Singh is injured after the pistol of an RPF jawan accidently.

– Former body – builder Bikash Datta(Mr. Hercules) passed away.

– Indian table tennis players Achanta Sharath Kamal and Soumyadeep Roy wins  medals in SAF Games.

– Pluto does not qualify as a planet under  the historic new guidelines that downsize the solar system to 8 planets.

– US enterpreneur Anousheh Ansari becomes the first female space tourist.

– In Siliguri 2 policemen driving to an Indian Oil depot near the New Jalpaiguri station with  explosives in their Maruti were caught but not before they had planted bombs in 2 petrol pumps.

– NRI Asit k. Biswas gets international Stokhome Water Prize.

– Archers Jayanta Talukdar and  Dola Banerjee ensured a double triumph for India by winning the recurve individual gold medals at the SAF Games.

– Former India Test batsman Vijay Mehra passed away.

– Darrell Hair ,the Australian umpire who found Pakistan guilty cheating had demanded what will  be widely interpreted as a  $500,000- bribe to step down from his post.

– Hrishikesh Mukherjee passed away.

– West Indian Cricketer Clive Walcot died.

– In India the ministry of  women  and children has petitioned the law ministry to raise  the age of a minor from 14 to 18 — in line with the definition  under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

– Tiger Woods won the Bridgestone Invitational World Golf Championship Akron,US.

– In a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of  Sciences said that  the preference for male babies in India and China has skewed national sex ratios to levels that could spawn increased anti-social behaviour and violence and destabilise society.

– Harry Potter  star Daniel Radcliffe will play the son of Rudyard Kipling(John Kipling-died 1915 in First World War) in a television movie about the author.

-In the ICC’s ODI rankings(August,2006) Australia is in 1st possition. Adam Gilchrist is the No.1 Batsman. Shaun Pollock is the No.1 Bowler as well as the No.1 Allrounder.

India’s Mahendra Singh Dhoni gets the 4th place between the Batsmen. Harbhajan Singh shares the 9th place in Bowlers between  with Makhaya Ntini. Irfan Pathan becomes the 5th Allrounder in the world. India is in the 4th place it self.

– Ace middle-distance runner Pinki Pramanik of West Bengal is one of the 5 Indians in the Asian team for the Athletics World Cup.

– Dola Banerjee, Soumyadeep Roy,Surya Sekhar Ganguly gets the Arjuna award.

– Sania Mirza is not in the first 50 list now(August,2006).

– C.M. Ibrahim,the former minister clawed back from  oblivion when a German made pistol popped out of his hand baggage at  Chennai airport.

– Two sisters(Renuka Kiran Shinde,Sima  Mohan  Gavit) who kidnappd children and killd them  by  smashing  their heads against walls or electricity poles could become the first women to be hanged in Independent India.

– An Iranian  airliner caught fire after a tyre burst on landing at an airport in the northeast  of  the country.

– 3 pilgrims from India and 11 from Pakistan massacred in Iraq.

– The career for the Andre Agassi came to a close when he lost to German qualifier Benjamin Becker at the US open.

– Alone gunman opened fire on a group of foreign tourists in the Jordanian capital Amman killing a British man and wounding six.

– Tiger Woods won PGA Championship in Norton.

– Tiger Woods becomes the player of  the year(rankings- 1.Tiger Woods(US) 22.59 avg.pts,2. Phil Micklson (US)8.83,3. Jim Furyk(US)8.17,4.Vijai Singh(Fij)7.59,5.Retief Goosen(RSA)6.63,6.Adam Scott(Aus)6.27,7.Ernie Els (RSA)5.90,8.Sergio Garcia(Esp)5.85,9.Luke Donald(Eng)5.68,10.Geoff Ogilvy(Aus)).

– Kalidasa’s statue unveiled at Shanghai Theatre Academy. He’s the only Asian among 19 world literary figures so honoured.

– explotion on Mharashtra.

– According to WHO in the last 45 years suicide rates have increased by 60 percent  worldwide. suicide  is now among the 3 leading causes of death among those aged 15-44 years.

– Leander Paes ( his partner was Martin Damm) won The  Grand Slam. It was his fourth men’s doubles crown and seventh in all.

– Russia’s Maria Sharapove won the women’s single title.

Roger Federer won the men’s single title.

– Michael Schumacher becomes the the most successful Formula One driver of all time. He is the only driver to win 7 championships in Formula One history and he also won most  of the sport’s meaningful records. his titles came in 1994,1995,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004.

– 4 members of the Memon family – Yakub,Essa, Yusuf and Rubeena were found guilty by a special court  signalling  the beginning of the end of one of the world’s longest trials. The 4 convicted were held guilty of criminal conspiracy in organising  and carrying out the Bombay blasts of March 12,1993, in which 257 people were killed(THE CASUALTY- Blasts- 13,Dead- 257, Injured- 713.THE ACCUSED- Defendants-123,Dead during trial- 11, In prison- 29,On bail- 94, Absconding-31. THE TRIAL- Witnesses-686,Testimonies-13,000pages. CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS LEADING UP THE VERDICT- Nov.4,1993- Police file primary chargesheet,Nov.19- CBI takes ove case, April 1,1994- Tada court shifts from the Mumbai sessions and civil court to a separate building on the premises of Arthur Road Central Jail,April 10,1995- Tada court discharges 26 accused Charges framed against the remaining accused. The Supreme Court discharges two more,April 19- Trial commences,April – June- Court frames charges, June 30- two accused turn approvers,Oct.14- SC grants bail to Sanjay Dutt,arrested on April 19,1993, March 23,1996- Judge J.N. Patel moves out after promotion, March 29,- P.D. Kode takes over as Tada judge, Oct.2000- Examination of prosecution witnesses ends, March 9 – July 18,2001- Court records statements of the accused, Aug.9- Prosecution begins arguments,Oct.18-Prosecution  completes arguments,Nov.9- Defence starts  arguments, Aug.22,2002-  Defence  rests case, Feb.20,2003- Police produce Dawood gang member Ejaz Pathan in court,Sept. Trial ends, June 13, 2006- Court separates Abu Salem’s trial,Sept. 12,2006- First verdict.).

– Former cricketer Manoj Prabhakar is facing dowry harassment charges now a days.

– A 25 year old gunman of Indian desent(named Kimveer Gill) has stunned Canada by walking into a college in Montreal and engaging in a shooting spree,killing one woman and injuring 19 people. The gunman( Kimveer Gill) was shot to death.

–  Sachin makes his 40th   ODI hundred. Sachin’s tally of test and ODI hundreds reaches 75.

– A 22 year old tutor Manoj Prasad has killed a 4 year old boy Subham Singh in Behala.

– A Russian Soyuz spacecraft blasted off carrying a woman set to notch up three space records- the first female tourist,first female Muslim and first Iranian in orbit. The name of the woman  is Anousheh Ansari.

– Former  Indian football captain Sudip Chatterjee died following a cardiac failure when a guava choked his respiratory tract (FACT-FILE- Asian  Games-1982 and 1986 (captain). Asia Cup-1984 (captain), 1988 (captain) and  1992-  Reached the final  round  in 1984.  Nehru  Gold  Cup- 1982,1983,1985,  (captain),1988 (captain), 1989. Merdeka Cup-1981,1986(captain)-Reached the semi-  final   in 1986. Pre-Olympic-1984. Pre – World Cup- 1985(captain). SAFF Games- 1985(captain),1989- India  won gold in 1985. Total international matches-60. 1982- Joined Mohan Bagan from BNR. 1982-83,1988-89,1991-92– played for Mohan Bagan. 1984-85,1986-87,1990– played for East Bengal ).

– Thailand’s army seized power from Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra without a shot being  fired(Feb. 6,2005-  Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra’s Thai Rak Thai Party wins a landslide,Sept.9- State- run TV takes off a show with references to corruption in high places, Jan.23,2006- Thaksin’s relatives sell controlling stake in Shin Corp, the telecom empire he founded, to a Singapore firm. The tax-free$1.9-billion sale angers Bangkok’s middle classes, Feb.24-  Thaksin  calls snap elections on April 2, three years early and two days before an anti-government rally,Feb.27- Three  main opposition parties announce election boycott, April 2- Election held,April 4- After a strong  protest vote, Thaksin meets revered King Bhumibhol Adulyadej and announces he will step down soon, April 5- Thaksin hands day- to- day power to the deputy  Prime Minister, May 8- Court terms the April election unconstitutional,May 23- Thaksin takes back reins of power, May 30- Government sets fresh election for Oct.15, July 20- Thai army chief re-assigns over 100 officers thought to be Thaksin’s supporters,fuelling coup rumours).

– A CPM leader  Anil Mahato and his AK 47 – toting  body guard were dragged out of a bus and shot dead in Bengal’s Maoist  heartland(Blood trail- Dec. 31,2005- CPM zonal committee member Rabi Kar and  his wife Anandamoyee are burnt to death at Bandwan in Purulia, March 4- Nine CPM activists are kidnapped and their leader Kartik Singh is killed at Lalgarh, West Midnapore,  March 5- Partyman Gatilal Tudu is hacked to death  at Barikul in Bankura, June 14- CPM local committee member Rabi Das is gunned down  at Belpahari,West Midnapore,June 20- CPM workers Uttam Sardar and Swapan Sardar  are shot dead at Chandpur  village in Nadia,Sept. 18,2006- The CPM leader Anil Mahato and his bodyguard is killed in West Midnapore ).

– Jacques Kallis became the first cricketer to score 8000 runs and take 200 wickets in both Tests ODIs(Career figures- KALLIS  IN  TESTS – 102 matches,8033 runs @ 55.78, 189* hst, 200 wkts @ 31.71, 6/67 best. KALLIS IN ODIS – 233 matches,8025 runs @ 43.61, 139 hst, 207 wkts @ 31.90, 5/30 best).

–  Mine blast on Lalgarh.

– In kolkata the second highest rainfall   in 24 hours in nearly 30 years.

– Rang De Basanti goes to  Oscars.

– Nine parameters,125 countries  and the global race for competitiveness,India is ranked 43(Brazil is ranked 66,Russian Federation is ranked  62, China  is ranked 54).

– Martina Hingis had handed Sania Mirza a straight – set defdat at the Sunfeast Open semi-final in Calcutta.

– Pervez Musharraf has written a book- ‘In the Line of Fire.’

– Michael Schumacher won the Chinese Grand Prix in Shanghai.(STANDINGS–Top Ten–Drivers1. Michael Schumacher (Ferrari) 116,  2. Fernando Alonso (Renault) 116, 3. Glancarlo Flsichella (Renault) 63, 4.Felipe Massa  (Ferrari)62, 5. Kimi Raikkonen (Mclaren)57, 6. Jenson Button (Honda) 45, 7. Rubens Barrichello(Honda)28,  8. Juan Pablo Montoya(26), 9. Nick Heidfeld ( BMW Sauber) 22, 10. Pedro dela Rosa((Mclaren))18.Constructors1. Renault(179),2. Ferrari(178) ,  3. Mclaren Mercedes (101), 4. Honda (73), 5.BMW Sauber(35), 6. Toyota (30), 7. Redbull – Ferrari(16),  8. Williams – Cosworth(11),  9. Toro Rosso Cosworth(11),10. MFI- Toyota (0).).

– Haldia Petro Chemicals Ltd (HPL) is planning a second unit that will more than double its capacity.

– Mahesh Bhupati won the ATP Championship(SINGLES TOP-10– ATP Tour1.(1)Roger Federer(Sui,7120),2.(2)Rafael Nadal (Esp,4625),3.(3) Ivan jubicic(Cro,3315),4. (4)David Nalbandian(Arg,2900),5. (5) Nikolay Davydenko (Rus , 2590),6. (6)Andy Roddick (US , 2585) ,7. (9)James Blake (US, 2240),8. (7)Tommy Robredo(Esp,2225),9. (8) Marcos  Baghdatis (Cyp, 2111),10. (11)Mario Ancic (Cro,1865). WTA Tour 1. (1) Amelia  Mauresmo (Fra,3746) , 2. (2) Justine  Henin – Hardenne  (Bel , 3474) , 3. (3) Maria  Sharapova  (Rus, 3037),4. (4) Svetlana  Kuznetsova (Rus, 2384), 5. (5)  Kim  Clijsters  (Bel, 2165), 6.(6)Elena Dementieva (Rus, 2027),7. (7) Nadia Petrova (Rus,1996),8.(8)Martina Hingis (Sui,1850),9.(9)  Patty Schnydr (Sui,1793) , 10.(11) Dinara Safina (Rus,1502)).

– An explosion occurred in a park next to Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf’s army residence in Rawalpindi.

– India is in capture of Dengue and Chikungunya.

– Britain’s The Sunday Times reported that the 7/7 London bombers had initially been ordered by al Qaida to assassinate the England and Australia cricket teams during the 2005 Ashes series.

– Kanshi Ram passed  away. His family is  suspecting  that Mayavati  has killed him.

– Allegations of corruption in arms deals erupted on former defence minister George Fernandes with the CBI registering a case against him.

– Author Kiran Desai won the Booker Prize for her book The Inheritance Of Loss.

– Paul Hunter, who won three world – ranking  tournaments and three Masters in his brief career has died after a courageous battle with cancer(FACT-FILE– Born-14/10/1978,Home town- Leeds,Turned professional- 1995,Professional tournament – 6,World – ranking events- 3(Welsh Open,1998,2002, British Open,2002),Invitation  event wins – 3(The  Masters,2001,2002,2004), Highest break in professional competition-146(2004 Premier League), Highest  world – ranking- No 4 (2004-05), Best performance in World Championship- Semi-finalist(2003), Total century breaks  in professional competition-111 ).

– For the first time, Herschelle Gibbs has confessed his role in the match – fixing scandal before an authority with the powers to prosecute the accused.

– The state health department has issued a confidential circular asking all blood banks across the state to reexamine the blood which was earlier tested with faulty kits supplied by Calcutta – based businessman Govind Sarda.

– Eastern Command soldier supplied Maoists with landmines and cartridges smuggled from the defence ministry’s ordnance factory on Calcutta’s northern fringes,army and police said that.

– Mukesh Ambani will be spending around Rs 340 crore on a custom – built Bombardier Global Express XRS – an ultra long range executive jet that flies just under the speed of sound.

– Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk,who was the first author in the Muslim world to condemn the fatwa against Salman Rushdie,has won the Nobel prize for literature.

– Banker of the poor Muhammad Yunus became the first Babgladeshi and third – some claim fourth – Bengali to win the Nobel when he was jointly awarded the peace prize along with the Grameen Bank he founded.

–  Writer Pratibha Basu  passed  away.

– Eleven people have been arrested for robbing a software professional in Salt Lake.

– Shoab Akhtar and Mohammed Asif  tested positive for the banned nandrolone,usually used to enhance performance. They are banned for  one year..

– High Court convicts Santosh Singh of rape and murder of Delhi University student Priyadarshini Mattoo and sentenced to be hanged.

– A D I G of Orisa Jaswinder Singh has been gunned down.

– Former Pak President Ishaq Khan died.

– Suresh Mehata becomes the new Naval Cheif.

– Saddam Hussain has been sentenced to be hanged.

– Former  Indian  cricket captain Pali Umrigar died.

DEATH ON CRICKET FIELD -(1942 – 2006)

Andy Ducat –  Andy Ducat died of a heart attack while batting in a club match at Lord’s in July 1942.

Abdul Aziz –  Abdul Aziz died during the final  of the Quaid – e – Azam Trophy

in 1958-59 between Karachi and Services.

Wilf Slack – Wilf Slack, the Middlesex and England left – handed opener collapsed and died at the age of 34 while batting in Banjul,capital of The Gambia, in January 1989.

Raman Lamba –  Raman Lamba died at the age of  38 after being hit on the head while fielding at forward short – leg during a club match in Dhaka in February 1998.

Wasim Raja –  Wasim Raja died with his boots on — playing in an over 50 compettition in Surrey– on 23 August,2006.

THE RECORDS OF MOHUN BAGAN  V  EAST BENGAL (2004 – 2006)

Sept.11,2004 – EB 0 Bagan 0

Oct. 8,2004 –  Bagan 8 (1) EB 7(1) tie-breaker

Nov.10,2004 – EB 2 Bagan 1

Jan.22,2005 – EB 0 Bagan 0

April 24,2005 – EB 1 Bagan 0

Aug.18,2005 – Bagan 1 EB 0

Sept. 3,2005 – Bagan 1 EB 0

Nov.27,2005 – EB 4 Bagan1

Jan.22,2006 – EB 0 Bagan 0

April 8,2006 – EB 3 Bagan 1

Aug.26,2006 – Bagan 1 EB 0

Sept.26,2006 – Bagan 1 EB 0

Mohan Bagan and East Bengal have played 140 matches in kolkata League, of which East Bengal have won 46. Mohan Bagan 39 while 55ended in a draw.

SAF GAMES(10th) FINAL TALLY

Team         Gold      Silver    Bronze

India –         118          69            47

Pakistan –    43         44             71

Sri Lanka –  37         63             78

Nepal –            9         14              31

Afghanistan –6           7              18

Bangladesh –  3        15              32

Maldivest –      0           0               0

NATIONS OF THE WORLD

(1)Afghanistan

Capital – Kabul. Area – 647,497sq.km. Languages – Pushtu, Persian. Religions – Sunny Muslim840/0 ,Shia Muslim 150/0,Others10/0.   Currency – Afghani. Date of  Independence – 19/8/1919.

(2)Albania

Capital – Tirana. Area – 28,748sq.km. Languages – Albanian,Greek. Religions – Islam700/0 ,Albanian Orthodox 200/0,Roman Catholic 100/0.  Currency – Lek. Date of  Independence – 28/11/1912.

(3) Algeria

Capital – Algiers. Area – 2,381,741sq.km. Languages – Arabic,Berber, French. Religions – Islam990/0 ,Christan and Jewish 10/0. Currency – Dinar. Date of  Independence – 5/71962.

(4)Andorra

Capital – Andorre-la-Vieille. Area – 464 sq.km. Languages – Catalan,French,Castilan. Religions – Predominantly Roman Catholic. Currency – Franc and Andorran Peseta .

(5)Angola

Capital – Luanda. Area –  1,246,699 sq.km. Languages – Portugues,Bantu. Religions –  Indigenous beliefs 470/0 ,Roman Catholic38 0/0 ,Protestant 150/0 . Currency – Readjusted Kwanza. Date of  Independence – 11/11/1975

(6)Antigua and Barbuda

Capital – St. John’s. Area – 442sq.km. Languages – English and Patois. Religions – Predominantly  Protestant, some Roman Catholic.  Currency – East Caribbean Dollar. Date of  Independence – 1/11/1981.

(7) Argentina

Capital – Buenos Aires. Area –   2,766,654sq.km.  Languages – Spanish, Italian. Religions – Roman Catholic920/0 , Protestant 2 0/0,  Jewish 2  0/0, Others40/0. Currency – Peso. Date of  Independence – 9/7/1816

(8)Armenia

Capital – Yerevan. Area – 29,800sq.km. Languages – Armenian. Religions –  Armenian Apostlic 940/0, Other  Christan 40/0, Yezidi 20/0.  Currency – The dram. Date of  Independence – 21/9/1991.

(9) Australia

Capital – Canberra. Area – 7,682,300sq.km. Languages – English and aboriginal  languages. Religions –  Anglican 26.1 0/0, Roman Catholic 260/0, Other  Christan   24.3 0/0, Non  Christan 110/0,  Others12.60/0,  . Currency – Australian   Dollar. Date of  Independence – 1/1/1901.

(10) Austria

Capital – Vienna. Area – 83,858sq.km. Languages – German. Religions – Roman Catholic74 0/0 ,Protestant 50/0 ,Islam 40/0 , Others 170/0. Currency – Schilling. Date of  Independence – 1156.

(11) Azerbaijan

Capital – Baku. Area –    86,600sq.km. Languages – Azeri,Turkish,Russian. Religions – Islam 94.30/0 ,Armenian Orthodox 2.30/0,Russian  Orthodox 2.50/0,  Others 1.80/0. Currency – Manat. Date of  Independence – 30/8/1991.

(12) The Bahamas

Capital – Nassau. Area – l3,939sq.km. Languages – English,Creole . Religions – Baptist 320/0, Anglican 200/0, Roman Catholic190/0. Currency – Bahamian Dollar. Date of  Independence – 10/7/1973.

(13)Bahrain

Capital – Manama. Area – 669sq.km. Languages – Arabic, English,Farsi,Urdu. Religions – Sunny Muslim 300/0 ,Shia Muslim 700/0. Currency – Bahraini Dinar. Date of  Independence – 15/8/1971.

(14)Bangladesh

Capital – Dhaka. Area – l48,393sq.km. Languages – Bangla,Chakma,Magh. Religions –Islam 830/0 ,Hindu160/0, Others 10/0. Currency – Taka. Date of  Independence – 16/12/1971.

(15) Barbados

Capital – Bridgetown. Area – 430sq.km. Languages –  English . Religions –   Roman Catholic 40/0 , Protestant 67 0/0,  None 17  0/0, Others120/0. Currency – Barbados Dollar. Date of  Independence – 30/11/1966.

(16)Belarus

Capital – Minsk. Area – 207,600sq.km. Languages –  Belorussian, Russian. Religions – Eastern  Orthodox 800/0,  Others 200/0.Currency – Ruble. Date of  Independence – 25/8 / 1991.

(17) Belgium

Capital – Brussels. Area – 30.52lsq.km. Languages – Flemish, French, German – all official. Religions – Roman Catholic 750/0 , Protestant and Others250/0. Currency – Euro. Date of  Independence –  4/10 / 1830.

(18)Belize

Capital – Belmopan. Area – 22,965sq.km. Languages – English, Spanish,Creole dialects . Religions – Roman Catholic 49.60/0 , Protestant 27 0/0,  None 9.4  0/0, Others140/0. Currency – Belize Dollar. Date of  Independence –  21/ 9/ 1981.

(19)Benin

Capital – Porto Novo. Area – l12,622 sq.km. Languages – French and Tribal  dialects   like  Fon ,Yoruba. Religions –   Indigenous  beliefs 50 0/0 , Christan  30 0/0 , Muslim 200/0 . Currency – Franc. Date of  Independence –  1/8 / 1960.

(20)Bhutan

Capital – Thimphu. Area – 46,500sq.km. Languages – Dzongkha , Lhotsam (Nepali), English. Religions – Buddhist  750/0 , Hindu  and  Nepalese25 0/0 .Currency – Nagultrum,fixed par with Indian Rupee which  is also legal tender. Date of  Independence –  8/ 8/ 1949.

(21)Bolivia

Capital – La Paz (administrative) and Sucre(judicial). Area – l,098,581sq.km. Languages – Spanish,Quechua and Aymara. Religions – Roman Catholic 950/0 , Protestant 5 0/0 . Currency – The Boliviano. Date of  Independence –  6/ 8/ 1825.

(22)Bosnia – Herzegovina

Capital – Sarajevo. Area – 5l,129sq.km. Languages – Serbocroatian. Religions –  Muslim 400/0,  Orthodox 310/0,  Roman Catholic 150/0 ,  Others140/0. Currency – Conv.Mark. Date of  Independence –  1/3 / 1992.

(23)Botswana

Capital – Gaborone. Area – 58l,730sq.km. Languages – English,Setswana and Sishona. Religions – tribal beliefs85 0/0,Christan15 0/0, . Currency – Pula. Date of  Independence –  30/9 / 1966.

(24)Brazil

Capital – Brasilia. Area – 8 , 51l ,965 sq.km. Languages – Portuguese(official),  Spanish , English , French. Religions – Roman  Catholic (nominal) 800/0 . Currency – Real. Date of  Independence –  7/9 / 1822.

(25)Brunei

Capital – Bander Seri Begawan. Area – 5,765sq.km. Languages – Malay,English,Chinese. Religions – Muslim 670/0,  Buddhist  130/0 ,Christan 10  0/0 , Indigenous beliefs and others100/0. Currency –Brunei Dollar. Date of  Independence –  1/1 / 1984.

(26)Bulgeria

Capital – Sofia. Area – l10,912sq.km. Languages – Bulgerian,Turkish. Religions – Bulgerian Orthodox82.6 0/0,Muslim 12.20/0,  Others5.2 0/0. Currency – Lev. Date of  Independence –  3/ 3/ 1878.

(27)Burkina Faso

Capital – Ouagadougou. Area – 274,200sq.km. Languages –  French and Sudanic tribal  languages. Religions – Tribal beliefs 400/0,Muslim 500/0, Christan 10  0/0. Currency –Franc CFA. Date of  Independence –  5/ 8/ 1960.

(28)Burundi

Capital – Bujumbura. Area –  27,834sq.km. Languages –French and  Kirundi. Religions –  Roman Catholic 620/0 , Indigenous  beliefs 23 0/0 ,Muslim 100/0, Protestant 5 0/0 . Currency –  Burundi  Franc. Date of  Independence –  1/7 / 1962.

(29)Cambodia

Capital – Phnom-penh. Area – 181,035sq.km. Languages – Khmer,French . Religions –  Theravada Buddhist  950/0 ,Others5 0/0. Currency –Riel . Date of  Independence –  9/ 11/ 1953.

(30)Cameroon

Capital – Yaounde. Area – 475,442sq.km. Languages –  French and English. Religions – Indigenous  beliefs 40 0/0 , Christan 40  0/0,Muslim 200/0 . Currency – CFA Franc. Date of  Independence –  1/ 1/ 1960.

(31)Canada

Capital – Ottawa. Area – 9,976,139sq.km. Languages – English, French . Religions – Roman Catholic 460/0 , Protestant 36 0/0,  Others180/0.  Currency – Dollar. Date of  Independence –  1/ 7/ 1867.

(32)Cape Verde

Capital – Praja. Area – 4033sq.km. Languages – Portuguese,Crioulo. Religions – Roman Catholic , Protestant  . Currency – Escudo. Date of  Independence –  5/7 / 1975.

(33)Cen. African Republic

Capital – Bangui. Area – 622,984sq.km. Languages –  French and Sangho. Religions – Muslim, Christan, Indigenous  beliefs . Currency – CFA Franc. Date of  Independence –  13/8 / 1960.

(34)Chad

Capital – N’djamena. Area – 1,284,000sq.km. Languages –  French, Arabic and 100 tribal  languages. Religions – Muslim 510/0 , Christan 35 0/0, Animist 70/0, Others70/0.  Currency –  CFA Franc. Date of  Independence –11/8 / 1960.

(35)Chile

Capital – Santiago. Area – 756,626sq.km. Languages – Spanish. Religions –Roman Catholic 89 0/0, Protestant  110/0 . Currency –peso. Date of  Independence –  18/9 / 1810.

(36)China

Capital – Bijing. Area – 9,561,000sq.km. Languages – Chinese(Mandarin),other local  languages. Religions – Officially Atheist,Buddhism,Taoism,Muslim. Currency –Rnminbi(Yuan). Date of  Independence –  1/1 / 1912.

(37)Colombia

Capital – Bogota. Area – 1,139,000sq.km. Languages – Spanish. Religions – Roman Catholic 90 0/0 . Currency – Peso. Date of  Independence –  20/7 / 1810.

(38)The Comoros

Capital – Moroni. Area – 1862sq.km. Languages – Arabic and Comoran. Religions – Muslim98 0/0,Roman Catholic 20/0, . Currency –  Comorian  Franc. Date of  Independence –  6/7 / 1975.

(39)Congo,D.R. of(Formerly Zaire)

Capital – Kinshasa. Area – 2,344,885sq.km. Languages – French, Kiswahili, Lingala,other  African  languages. Religions – Muslim, Christan,Kimbanguist,Others. Currency – Congolese  Franc. Date of  Independence –  30/6 / 1960.

(40)Congo

Capital – Brazzaville. Area – 342,000sq.km. Languages –French, Lingala,Congo,Teke.  Religions – Muslim, Christan,Animist . Currency – CFA Franc. Date of  Independence –  15/8 / 1960.

(41)Costa Rica

Capital – San  Jose. Area – 51,110sq.km. Languages – Spanish.  Religions – Christan,Others,None. Currency – Colon. Date of  Independence –  15/ 9/ 1821.

(42)Cote D’Ivoire

Capital – Yamoussoukro. Area – 322,462sq.km. Languages – French,Tribal . Religions – Muslim, Christan,Others. Currency –  CFA Franc. Date of  Independence –  7/8 / 1960.

(43)Croatia

Capital – Zagreb. Area – 56,538sq.km. Languages – Serbo Croation. Religions –  Orthodox, Muslim, Christan,Others,Unknown . Currency – Kuna. Date of  Independence –  25/ 6/ 1991.

(44)Cuba

Capital – Havana. Area – 110,922sq.km. Languages –Spanish. . Religions –  Roman Catholic ETC. Currency – Peso. Date of  Independence –  20/5 / 1902.

(45)Cyprus

Capital –  Nicosia. Area – 9,251sq.km. Languages –  Greek,Turkish,English. Religions – Greek   Orthodox, Muslim,Maronite,Armenian Apstolic,Others . Currency – Cyprus Pound. Date of  Independence –  16/8 / 1960.

(46)Turkish Cyprus

Capital – Nicosia. Area – 3355sq.km. Languages –  Turkish. . Currency – Turkish Lira.

(47)Czech Republic

Capital – Prague. Area – 78,864sq.km. Languages – Czech. Religions – Protestant4.6 0/0,Roman Catholic39.20/0,Orthodox30/0,Atheist39.80/0,Others13.40/0 .Currency – The Koruna. Date of  Independence –  1/ 1/ 1993.

(48)Denmark

Capital – Copenhagen. Area – 43,074sq.km. Languages – Danish. Religions – Muslim, Christan . Currency – Danish Krone.

(49)DJibouti

Capital – DJibouti. Area – 21,783sq.km. Languages – French,Arabic,Affar, Issa. Religions – Muslim, Christan. Currency – DJibouti Franc. Date of  Independence –  27/ 6/ 1977.

(50)Dominica

Capital – Roseau. Area – 750sq.km. Languages – English, French Patois. Religions – Roman Catholic77 0/0,Protestant150/0,None20/0,Others60/0 . Currency – East Caribbean Dollar. Date of  Independence –  3/ 11/ 1978.

(51)Dominican Republic

Capital – Santo Domingo. Area – 48,442sq.km. Languages –  Spanish. Religions –Roman Catholic95 0/0 . Currency –  Peso. Date of  Independence –  27/2 / 1844.

(52)East Timor

Capital – Dili. Area – 14,874sq.km. Languages – Tetum,Portuguese(official),  English, Bahasa Indonesian . Religions – Muslim, Christan, Hindu, Buddhist,Animist. Currency – US Dollar and Indonesian Rupiah. Date of  Independence –  20/ 5/ 2002.

(53)Ecuador

Capital – Quito. Area – 283,561sq.km. Languages –  Spanish,Quechuan , tribal dialects. Religions – Roman Catholic95 0/0 . Currency –  US Dollar and Sucre. Date of  Independence –  24/ 5/ 1822.

(54)Egypt

Capital – Cairo. Area – 997,677sq.km. Languages – Arabic,English. Religions – Muslim94 0/0,Coptic Christan,others60/0, . Currency – Egyptian Pound. Date of  Independence –  28/2 / 1922.

(55)El Salvador

Capital – San Salvador. Area – 21,393sq.km. Languages –  Spanish. Religions – Roman Catholic830/0 . Currency – Colon. Date of  Independence –  15/ 9/ 1821.

(56)Equatorial Guinea

Capital – Malabo. Area – 28,051sq.km. Languages –  Spanish, Fang, Bubi, pidgin English. Religions – Christan. Currency – CFA Franc. Date of  Independence –  12/10 / 1968.

(57)Eritrea

Capital – Asmara. Area – 117,600sq.km. Languages – Tigrinya Arabic, several other local  languages. Religions – Muslim, Christan. Currency – Nafka. Date of  Independence –  24/5 / 1993.

(58)Estonia

Capital – Tallinn. Area – 45,100sq.km. Languages – Estonian. Religions – Russian Orthodox,Estonian Orthodox,Jewish,Seventh-Day Adventist,Roman Catholic,Methodist,Baptist,Pentecostal,World of Life . Currency – Kroon. Date of  Independence –  20/ 8/ 1991.

(59)Ethiopia

Capital – Addis Ababa. Area – 1,221,900sq.km. Languages – Amharic,Oromiga , Tigrigna ,60  other small  languages. Religions – Muslim,Ethiopian  Orthodox,Animist  ,others. Currency – Birr. Date of  Independence –  810.

(60)Fiji

Capital – Suva. Area – 18,376sq.km. Languages – English, Fijian,  Hindi. Religions – Muslim, Christan, Hindu, others . Currency – Dollar. Date of  Independence –  2/ 10/ 1970.

(61)Finland

Capital – Helsinki. Area – 338,000sq.km. Languages – Finnish ,Swedish. Religions – Russian Orthodox,Evangelical Lutheran ,None,Others. Currency – Euro. Date of  Independence –  6/ 12/ 1917.

(62)France

Capital – Paris. Area – 543,965sq.km. Languages –French , regional dialects. Religions – Muslim,Jewish,Christan,Unaffiliated. Currency –Euro. Date of  Independence –  486.

(63)Gabon

Capital – Libreville. Area – 267,667sq.km. Languages – French , Bantu dialects. Religions – Muslim,Animist,,Christan ,Indigenous  beliefs . Currency – CFA Franc. Date of  Independence –  17/ 8/ 1960.

(64)The Gambia

Capital – Banjul. Area – 11,295sq.km. Languages – English , Mandinka. Religions – Muslim,Christan ,Indigenous  beliefs. Currency – Dalasi. Date of  Independence –  18/ 2/ 1965.

(65)Georgia

Capital – Tbilisi. Area – 69,700sq.km. Languages – Georgian , Russian. Religions – Georgian Orthodox65 0/0 , Russian Orthodox10 0/0,Muslim11 0/0,Armenian Apostolic80/0,Unkwon60/0 . Currency – The Lari. Date of  Independence –  9/ 4/ 1991.

(66)Germany

Capital – Berlin. Area – 357,020sq.km. Languages – German. Religions – Muslim ,Christan ,others . Currency – Euro. Date of  Independence –  3/ 10/ 1990.

(67)Ghana

Capital – Accra. Area – 238,537sq.km. Languages – English (official), 8 major national languages. Religions –Muslim16 0/0,Christan630/0 ,Indigenous  beliefs210/0  . Currency – Cedi. Date of  Independence –  6/3 / 1957.

(68)Greece

Capital – Athens. Area – 131,990sq.km. Languages –Greek . Religions –Greek   Orthodox98 0/0. Currency – Euro. Date of  Independence – 1829.

(69)Grenada

Capital – St. George’s. Area – 344sq.km. Languages – English ,  French-African patois. Religions – Roman Catholic53 0/0,Protestant33.20/0,Anglican 13.80/0 . Currency – East Caribbean Dollar. Date of  Independence –  7/ 2/ 1974.

(70)Guatemala

Capital – Guatemala City. Area – 14,655,189sq.km. Languages – Spanish and   Indian dialects. Religions – ,Christan ,Indigenous Mayan beliefs. Currency – Quetzal. Date of  Independence –  15/ 9/ 1821.

(71)Guinea

Capital – Conakry. Area – 245,857sq.km. Languages –  French , 8 national languages. Religions –Muslim85 0/0,Christan80/0 ,Indigenous  beliefs70/0 . Currency – Franc. Date of  Independence –  2/10 / 1958.

(72)Guinea-Bissau

Capital – Bissau. Area – 36,125sq.km. Languages –  Crioulo,Portuguese,Tribal languages. Religions – Muslim45 0/0,Christan50/0 ,Indigenous  beliefs 500/0. Currency – CFA Franc. Date of  Independence –  24/ 9/ 1973.

(73)Guyana

Capital – Georgetown. Area – 214,969sq.km. Languages – English , Hindi,Urdu,Creole. Religions – Muslim, Christan, Hindu, others . Currency – Guyana Dollar. Date of  Independence –  26/ 5/ 1966.

(74)Haiti

Capital – Port-au-Prince. Area – 27,750sq.km. Languages – French(official),Creole. Religions – Roman Catholic80 0/0,Protestant160/0,None10/0,others30/0 . Currency – Gourde. Date of  Independence –  1/1 / 1804.

(75)Honduras

Capital – Tequcigalpa. Area – 112,088sq.km. Languages –  Spanish and some Indian dialects. Religions – Roman Catholic97 0/0,Protestant . Currency – Lempira. Date of  Independence –  15/9/ 1821.

(76)Hungary

Capital – Budapest. Area – 93,033sq.km. Languages – Hungarian(Magyar). Religions –Roman Catholic67. 5 0/0, Lutheran 50/0,Calvinist20 0/0, Atheist ,others7.50/0 . Currency – Forint. Date of  Independence –  1001.

(77)Iceland

Capital – Reykjavik. Area – 102,846sq.km. Languages – Icelandic. Religions – Evangelical Lutheran  87.1 0/0,other Protestant4.10/0, . Currency – Krona. Date of  Independence –  17/6 / 1944.

(78)India

Capital – New Delhi. Area – 3,287,263sq.km. Languages – Hindi(official),English , officialy 18 recognised languages. Religions – Hindu81.3 0/0,Muslim120/0,Christan 2.30/0 ,Sikh 1.9 0/0Buddhist,Jain,ParsiETC2.5 0/0. Currency –Rupee. Date of  Independence –  15/ 8/ 1947.

(79)Indonesia

Capital – Jakarta. Area – 1,904,569sq.km. Languages – Bahasa Indonesian , Dutch , English , Javanese, other Austro-nesian languages. Religions – Buddhist,Muslim, Christan, Hindu, others . Currency – Rupiah. Date of  Independence – 17/ 8/ 1945.

(80)Iran

Capital – Teheran. Area – 1,648,000sq.km. Languages –Persian(Farsi),Turk, Kurdish, Arabic. Religions –Muslim99 0/0, Zoroastrian,Jewish,Christan,Baha10/0   . Currency – Rial. Date of  Independence –  1/4 / 1979.

(81)Iraq

Capital – Baghdad. Area – 438,446sq.km. Languages – Arabic(official),Kurdish. Religions –  Muslim97 0/0 ,Christan ,others30/0. Currency – Iraqi Dinar. Date of  Independence –  3/10 / 1932.

(82)Ireland

Capital – Dublin. Area – 70,282sq.km. Languages – Irish,English. Religions – Roman Catholic91.6 0/0,Church of Ireland10/0, others5.90/0. Currency – Euro. Date of  Independence –  6/12 / 1921.

(83)Israel

Capital – Jerusalem. Area – 20,772sq.km. Languages – Hebrew(official),Arabic. Religions –  Sunny Muslim14.6 0/0,Jewish80.1 0/0 ,Christan2.10/0  ,others3.20/0. Currency – New Shekel. Date of  Independence –  14/5 / 1948.

(84)Itali

Capital – Rome. Area – 301,278sq.km. Languages – Italian. Religions – Roman Catholic . Currency – Euro. Date of  Independence –  17/ 3/ 1861.

(85)Jamaica

Capital – Kingston. Area – 11,425sq.km. Languages – English, Jamaican. Religions – Roman Catholic40/0, Protestant61.3 0/0,others34.70/0. Currency – Dollar. Date of  Independence –  6/8 / 1962.

(86)Japan

Capital – Tokyo. Area – 377,765sq.km. Languages – Japanese. Religions – Shinto and Buddhism84 0/0,Others160/0, . Currency –Yen. Date of  Independence –  660B.C.

(87)Jordan

Capital – Amman. Area – 89,287sq.km. Languages – Arabic,   English. Religions – Sunny Muslim92 0/0,Christan60/0,others20/0  . Currency – Dinar. Date of  Independence –  25/ 5/ 1946.

(88)Kazakhstan

Capital – Astana. Area – 2,717,300sq.km. Languages – Kazakh , Russian ,German. Religions – Russian Orthodox44 0/0,Muslim470/0,Protestant2 0/0,others70/0   . Currency – Tenge. Date of  Independence –  16/12 / 1991.

(89)Kenya

Capital – Nairobi. Area – 582,646sq.km. Languages – Kiswahili , English , Kikuyu , several other  languages. Religions – Protestant45 0/0,Roman Catholic330/0 ,Indigenous  beliefs100/0 . Currency – Shilling. Date of  Independence –  12/12 / 1963.

(90)Kiribati

Capital – Tarawa. Area – 861sq.km. Languages – Gilbertese,English. Religions – Roman Catholic52 0/0,Protestant400/0. Currency – Australian   Dollar. Date of  Independence –  12/ 7/ 1979.

(91)Korea(North)

Capital – Pyongyang. Area – 120,538sq.km. Languages – Korean. Religions – Traditionally Buddhist,Christan,Confucianist,Syncretic Chondogyo . Currency – Won. Date of  Independence – 15/ 8/ 1945.

(92)Korea(South)

Capital – Seoul. Area – 98,859sq.km. Languages – Korean. Religions – Buddhist47 0/0,Christan490/0,Confucianist30/0,others10/0  . Currency – Won. Date of  Independence –  15/ 8/ 1945.

(93)Kuwait

Capital – Kuwait City. Area – 17,818sq.km. Languages –Arabic,  English. Religions – Islam. Currency – Kuwait Dinar. Date of  Independence –  19/6 / 1961.

(94)Kirghyzstan

Capital – Bishkek. Area – 198,500sq.km. Languages – Kirghyz, Russian. Religions – Russian Orthodox20 0/0,Muslim750/0,others50/0  . Currency – Som. Date of  Independence –  31/8 / 1991.

(95)Laos

Capital – Vientiane. Area – 236,800sq.km. Languages – Lao, Tribal , English, French. Religions – Buddhist60 0/0,Animist and others400/0, . Currency – Kip. Date of  Independence –  19/7 / 1949.

(96)Latvia

Capital – Riga. Area – 63,700sq.km. Languages – Latvian,Lithuanian,Russian. Religions – Roman Catholic,Russian Orthodox,Lutheran  . Currency – Lat. Date of  Independence –  21/ 8/ 1991.

(97)Lebanon

Capital – Beirut. Area – 10,400sq.km. Languages – Arabic, French,  English. Religions – Muslim70 0/0,Christan,Jewish300/0 . Currency – Pound. Date of  Independence –  22/ 11/ 1943.

(98)Lesotho

Capital – Maseru. Area – 30,355sq.km. Languages – English,Sesotho. Religions –Christan800/0, Indigenous  beliefs200/0 , . Currency – Loti. Date of  Independence –  4/ 10/ 1966.

(99)Liberia

Capital – Monrovia. Area – 111,369sq.km. Languages – English,Tribal dialects. Religions – Muslim20 0/0,Christan400/0, Indigenous  beliefs400/0  . Currency –  Liberian Dollar. Date of  Independence –  26/7 / 1847.

(100)Libya

Capital – Tripoli. Area – 1,759,540sq.km. Languages – Arabic. Religions – Sunny Muslim97 0/0, . Currency – Libyan Dinar. Date of  Independence –  24/12 / 1951.

(101)Lechtenstein

Capital – Vaduz. Area – 160sq.km. Languages – German. Religions – Roman Catholic76.2 0/0,Protestant70/0,Unknwon10.60/0,others6.20/0 . Currency – Swiss Frank. Date of  Independence –  23/ 1/ 1719.

(102)Lithuania

Capital – Vilnius(Vilna). Area – 65,200sq.km. Languages – Lithuanian. Religions – Roman Catholic(primarily), Russian Orthodox,Lutheran ,Evangelical Christan Baptist, Protestant,Muslim,Jewish . Currency – Litas. Date of  Independence –  11/3 / 1990.

(103)Luxembourg

Capital – Luxembourg. Area – 2586sq.km. Languages – French, German, English, Luxembourgish . Religions – Roman Catholic87 0/0,Protestant , Jews, Muslim13 0/0. Currency – Euro. Date of  Independence –  1839.

(104)Macedonia

Capital – Skopje. Area – 587,341sq.km. Languages – Macedonian. Religions – Macedonian  Orthodox70 0/0,Muslim290/0,others10/0  . Currency – Denar. Date of  Independence –  8/ 9/ 1991.

(105)Madagascar

Capital – Antananarivo. Area – 118,784sq.km. Languages – Malagasy,French. Religions –Muslim7 0/0,Christan410/0, Indigenous  beliefs520/0 . Currency – Malagasy Franc. Date of  Independence –  26/6 / 1960.

(106)Malawi

Capital – Lilongwe. Area – sq.km. Languages – English , Chichewa ,Lomwe , Yao. Religions –  Protestant55 0/0,Roman Catholic200/0,Muslim20 0/0, Indigenous  beliefs 3.0/0,others20/0 . Currency – Kwacha. Date of  Independence –  6/7 / 1964.

(107)Malaysia

Capital – Kuala Lumpur. Area – 330,434sq.km. Languages – Malay,English, Chinese, Tamil . Religions –  Buddhist,Muslim, Hindu,Daoist,Christan,Sikh . Currency – Ringgit. Date of  Independence –  31/8 / 1957.

(108)Maldives

Capital – Male. Area – 298sq.km. Languages – Divehi (Sinhalese dialect). Religions –  Sunny Muslim . Currency – Rufiya. Date of  Independence –  26/ 7/ 1965.

(109)Mali

Capital – Bamako. Area – 1,240,192sq.km. Languages – French(official),Bambara, other African languages. Religions –Muslim90 0/0,Christan10/0 ,Indigenous  beliefs90/0  . Currency –CFA Franc. Date of  Independence –  22/9 / 1960.

(110)Malta

Capital – Valletta. Area – 316sq.km. Languages – Maltese,English. Religions – Roman Catholic980/0 . Currency – Lira. Date of  Independence –  21/ 9/ 1964.

(111)Marshall Islands

Capital – Dalap-Uliga-Darrit. Area – 181sq.km. Languages – Marshallese,English, other indigenous languages and Japanese. Religions – Christan . Currency – Dollar. Date of  Independence –  21/10 / 1986.

(112)Mauritania

Capital – Nouakchott. Area – 1,030,700sq.km. Languages –  Arabic, French, Hassanya Arabic, Wolof, Pulaar,Soninke. Religions – Muslim1000/0  . Currency – Ouguiya. Date of  Independence –  28/11/1960.

(113)Mauritius

Capital – Port Louis. Area – 2040sq.km. Languages – English,French,Creole , Hindustani. Religions – Muslim16.6 0/0,Christan28.3 0/0, Hindu52 0/0,others3.10/0  . Currency – Rupee. Date of  Independence – 12/3/1968.

(114)Mexico

Capital – Mexico City. Area – 1,972,547sq.km. Languages –Spanish, Amerindian  languages. Religions – Roman Catholic89 0/0,Protestant60/0,others50/0 . Currency – New Peso. Date of  Independence –  24/ 9/ 1821.

(115)Micronesia

Capital – Palikir. Area – 702sq.km. Languages – English ,local languages. Religions – Roman Catholic50 0/0,Protestant470/0 . Currency – US Dollar. Date of  Independence –  3/ 11/ 1986.

(116)Moldova

Capital – Chisinau. Area – 33,700sq.km. Languages –Romanian, Ukrainian. Religions – Eastern  Orthodox98 0/0,Jewish150/0,Baptist ,others0.50/0  . Currency – The Leu. Date of  Independence –  27/ 8/ 1991.

(117)Monaco

Capital – Monaco. Area – 1.95sq.km. Languages – French, Monegasque,Italian. Religions – Roman Catholic90 0/0 . Currency – Euro. Date of  Independence –  1419.

(118)Mongolia

Capital – Ulan Bator. Area – 1,565,000sq.km. Languages – Mongolian. Religions – Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism96 0/0,Muslim,Shamanism,Christan40/0 . Currency – Tugrik. Date of  Independence –  11/ 7/ 19.

(119)Morocco

Capital – Rabat. Area – 458,730sq.km. Languages –  Arabic,Berber. Religions – Muslim98.7 0/0,Christan1.10/0,Jewish0.20/0 . Currency – Dirham. Date of  Independence –  2/ 6/ 1956.

(120)Mozambique

Capital – Maputo. Area – 783,030sq.km. Languages –  Portuguese,Bantu. Religions – Muslim20 0/0,Christan300/0,Indigenous  beliefs500/0. Currency – Metical. Date of  Independence –  25/ 6/ 1975.

(121)Myanmar

Capital – Yangon. Area – 676,553sq.km. Languages – Burmese , Karen, Shan. Religions – Buddhist89 0/0,Muslim4 0/0,Christan40/0 ,Animist 10/0 ,others20/0 . Currency – Kyat. Date of  Independence –  4/ 1/ 1948.

(122)Namibia

Capital – Windhoek. Area – 826,700sq.km. Languages – English , Afrikaans, German, several indiguenous languages. Religions – Christan80-900/0 ,Indigenous  beliefs10-200/0. Currency – Dollar. Date of  Independence –  21/ 3/ 1990.

(123)Nauru

Capital –Yaren district. Area – 21.1sq.km. Languages – English,Nauruan. Religions – Christan . Currency – Australian   Dollar. Date of  Independence –  31/ 1/ 1968.

(124)Nepal

Capital –Kathmandu. Area – 147,181sq.km. Languages – Nepali, Maithir, Bhojpuri. Religions – Buddhist7.8 0/0,Muslim3.8 0/0, Hindu86.20/0. Currency – Nepalese Rupee. Date of  Independence –  1768.

(125)The Netherlands

Capital – Amsterdam. Area – 41,160sq.km. Languages – Dutch. Religions – Roman Catholic31 0/0,Protestant210/0 ,Muslim4.4 0/0,others3.60/0 ,Unaffiliated400/0, . Currency – Euro. Date of  Independence –   1579.

(126)New Zealand

Capital – Wellington. Area – 269,057sq.km. Languages – English,Maori dialect. Religions – Roman Catholic15 0/0,other Protestant30/0, Anglican 24 0/0, Presbyterian 18 0/0,Methodist 5 0/0,Baptist 2 0/0,None33 0/0. Currency –  New Zealand Dollar. Date of  Independence –  26/9 / 1907.

(127)Nicaragua

Capital – Managua. Area – 130,000sq.km. Languages – Spanish,English. Religions – Roman Catholic85 0/0,Protestant . Currency – Gold Cordoba. Date of  Independence –  15/ 9/ 1821.

(128)Niger

Capital – Niamey. Area – 1,267,000sq.km. Languages –French,Hausa,Djerma. Religions – Muslim80 0/0,Christan, Indigenous  beliefs . Currency –  CFA Franc. Date of  Independence –  3/8 / 1960.

(129)Nigeria

Capital – Abuja. Area – 923,768sq.km. Languages – English,Hausa, Ibo, Yoruba. Religions –Muslim50 0/0,Christan400/0, Indigenous  beliefs. Currency – Naira. Date of  Independence –  1/10/1960.

(130)Norway

Capital – Oslo. Area – 323,895sq.km. Languages – Norwegian. Religions – Evangelical Lutheran,Roman Catholic,other Protestant . Currency – Krone. Date of  Independence –  7/6 / 1905.

(131)Oman

Capital – Muscat. Area – 300,000sq.km. Languages – Arabic. Religions –Muslim, Hindu . Currency – Rial Omani. Date of  Independence –  1650.

(132)Pakistan

Capital – Islamabad. Area – 796,095sq.km. Languages – Urdu(Official),Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushtu, Baluchi,English. Religions – Muslim97 0/0,Christan, Hindu,others30/0 . Currency – Rupees. Date of  Independence –  14/8 / 1947.

(133)Palau

Capital – Koror. Area – 1,632sq.km. Languages – Palauan,English and   other languages. Religions –Christan,Modekngei  religion . Currency – US Dollar. Date of  Independence –  1/ 10/ 1994.

(134)Palestine

Currency –  Israeli currency.

(135)Panama

Capital – Panama City. Area – 77,082sq.km. Languages – Spanish,English. Religions – Roman Catholic85 0/0, Protestant150/0, . Currency – Balboa. Date of  Independence –  3/11 / 1903.

(136)Papua New Guinea

Capital – Port Moresby. Area – 462,840sq.km. Languages – English,Melanesian, papuan languages. Religions – Roman Catholic22 0/0,other Protestant100/0, Anglican 5 0/0,Seventh-Day Adventist10/0,Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society80/0,Lutheran160/0,Evangelical Alliance40/0,. Currency – Kina. Date of  Independence –  16/ 9/ 1975.

(137)Paraguay

Capital – Asuncion. Area – 406,752sq.km. Languages – Spanish,Guarani. Religions –Roman Catholic90 0/0,Mennonite,other Protestant . Currency – Guarani. Date of  Independence –  14/5 / 1811.

(138)Peru

Capital – Lima. Area – 1,281,215sq.km. Languages – Spanish,Quechua. Religions – Roman Catholic90 0/0 . Cur0rency – New Sol. Date of  Independence –  28/7 / 1821.

(139)The Philippines

Capital – Manila. Area – 299,404sq.km. Languages – Filipino,English,Spanish. Religions – Roman Catholic83 0/0,Protestant90/0 ,Muslim5 0/0,Buddhist ,others30/0 . Currency –  Peso. Date of  Independence –  12/6 / 1978.

(140)Poland

Capital – Warsaw. Area – 312,677sq.km. Languages – Polish. Religions –  Roman Catholic95 0/0 ,Eastern  Orthodox,Protestant,others50/0 . Currency – Zloty. Date of  Independence –  11/11 / 1918.

(141)Portugual

Capital – Lisbon. Area – 92,072sq.km. Languages – Portuguese. Religions – Roman Catholic94 0/0,Protestant . Currency – Euro. Date of  Independence –  1143.

(142)Qatar

Capital – Doha. Area – 11,437sq.km. Languages – Arabic ,English. Religions – Muslim950/0, . Currency – Riyal. Date of  Independence –  3/9 / 1971.

(143)Romania

Capital – Bucharest. Area – 237,500sq.km. Languages – Romanian, Hungarian, German. Religions – Eastern  Orthodox870/0, Catholic5.6 0/0,Protestant6.80/0 ,others0.40/0,Unaffiliated0.20/0. Currency – Leu. Date of  Independence –  9/5 / 1877.

(144)Russia

Capital – Moscow. Area – 17,075,000sq.km. Languages –  Russian, Ukrainian, Belarussian, Uzbek, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Georgian and others. Religions – Russian Orthodox,Muslim,Others . Currency –Rouble. Date of  Independence –  24/8 / 1991.

(145)Rwanda

Capital – Kigali. Area – 26,338sq.km. Languages – French,Kinyarwanda,Swahili. Religions – Roman Catholic56.5 0/0,Adventist11.1 0/0,Muslim4.6 0/0,Protestant260/0 ,Indigenous  beliefs0.1 0/0.None1.70/0, . Currency –  Franc. Date of  Independence –  1/7 / 1962.

(146)Samoa(formerly Western Samoa)

Capital – Apia. Area – 2835sq.km. Languages – Samoan,English. Religions – Christan99.7 0/0. Currency – Tala. Date of  Independence –  1/ 1/ 1962.

(147)San Marino

Capital – San Marino. Area – 61sq.km. Languages – Italian. Religions – Roman Catholic . Currency – Euro. Date of  Independence –  3/9/ 301.

(148)Sahrawi Arab Demo.Rep.(S.AD.R.)

Capital – El- Alaiun. Area – 266,769sq.km. Languages – Arabic. Religions – Islam.

(149)Sao Tome & Principe

Capital – Sao Tome. Area – 964sq.km. Languages – Portuguese,native dialects like – Fang. Religions – Christan800/0 . Currency – Dobra. Date of  Independence –  12/7 / 1975.

(150)Saudi Arabia

Capital – Riyadh(Royal)and Jeddah. Area – 2,250,070sq.km. Languages – Arabic. Religions – Muslim100 0/0 . Currency – Riel(SAR). Date of  Independence –  23/9 / 1932.

(151)Senegal

Capital – Dakar. Area – 196,162sq.km. Languages –  French,Wolof, other native tongues. Religions – Muslim94 0/0,Christan50/0,Indigenous  beliefs10/0  . Currency – CFA Franc. Date of  Independence –   4/4/1960.

(152)Serbia & Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia)

Capital – Belgrade. Area – 102,173sq.km. Languages – Serbo-Croatian(official), Albanian. Religions – Orthodox6.5 0/0,Roman Catholic40/0,Muslim19 0/0, Protestant10/0 ,others110/0. Currency – New Dinar. Date of  Independence –   27/4/1992.

(153)Seychelles

Capital – Victoria. Area – 308sq.km. Languages – Creole,English, French. Religions – Anglican 6.8 0/0,Roman Catholic86.6 0/0,other  Christan2.50/0,others4. 10/0 . Currency – Rupee. Date of  Independence –  29/ 6/ 1976.

(154)Sierra Leone

Capital –  Freetown. Area – 71,740sq.km. Languages – English , tribal. Religions –Muslim60 0/0,Christan100/0,Indigenous  beliefs300/0 . Currency – Leone. Date of  Independence –  27/4/1961.

(155)Singapore

Capital – Singapore city. Area – 616.3sq.km. Languages –  Malay, Chinese, Tamil , English. Religions – Buddhist ,Muslim ,Christan , Hindu, Sikh,Taoist, Confucianist . Currency – Singapore Dollar. Date of  Independence –  9/ 8/ 1965.

(156)Slovakia

Capital – Bratislava. Area – 49,036sq.km. Languages –  Slovak , Magyar. Religions – Roman Catholic60.3 0/0,Atheist9.70/0,Protestant8.40/0 ,Orthodox4.1 0/0,others17.50/0 . Currency – Koruna(Crown). Date of  Independence –  1/1/ 1993.

(157)Slovenia

Capital – Ljubljana. Area – 20,251sq.km. Languages – Slovenian. Religions – Roman Catholic70.8 0/0,Lutheran1 0/0,Muslim1 0/0,Atheist4.30/0,others22.90/0  . Currency – Tolar. Date of  Independence –  25/6/ 1991.

(158)Solomon Islands

Capital – Honiara. Area – 29,758sq.km. Languages – English, Pidgin English, local languages. Religions –Anglican 45 0/0,Roman Catholic180/0,United 120/0, Baptist9 0/0,Seventh-Day Adventist70/0,other Protestant50/0 ,Indigenous  beliefs4 0/0. Currency – Dollar. Date of  Independence –  7/7/ 1978.

(159) Somalia

Capital – Mogadishu. Area – 637,657sq.km. Languages – Somali , Arabic ,English, Italian. Religions –  Sunny Muslim. Currency – Shilling. Date of  Independence –  1/7/ 1960.

(160)South Africa

Capital – Pretoria. Area – 1,223,201sq.km. Languages – Afrikaans, English and  9 other languages. Religions – Muslim2 0/0,Christan680/0, Hindu 1.50/0,Indigenous  beliefs,Animist280/0, . Currency – Rand. Date of  Independence –  31/5/ 1910.

(161)Spain

Capital – Madrid  . Area – 504,750sq.km. Languages – Spanish ,  Catalan ,Basque , Galician . Religions – Roman Catholic94 0/0,others60/0 . Currency – Euro. Date of  Independence –  1492.

(162)Sri Lanka

Capital – Colombo. Area – 65,610sq.km. Languages – Sinhala , Tamil , English. Religions –  Buddhist70 0/0,Muslim7 0/0,Christan80/0, Hindu 150/0 . Currency – Rupee. Date of  Independence –  4/ 2/ 1948.

(163)St. Kitts-Nevis

Capital – Bassseterre. Area – 269sq.km. Languages – English ,  Patois. Religions – Anglican ,other Protestant, Roman Catholic. Currency – East Caribbean Dollar. Date of  Independence –  19/9/1983.

(164)St.Lucia

Capital – Castries. Area – 616sq.km. Languages –  English , French Patois. Religions – Roman Catholic90 0/0,Anglican 3 0/0,other Protestant70/0 . Currency – East Caribbean Dollar. Date of  Independence –  22/2 / 1979.

(165)St. Vincent & The Grenadines

Capital – Kingstown. Area – 388sq.km. Languages – English , French Patois. Religions – Anglican 47 0/0,Methodist28 0/0 ,Roman Catholic130/0, Hindu,Seventh-Day Adventist,other Protestant. Currency – East Caribbean Dollar. Date of  Independence –  27/ 10/ 1979.

(166)Sudan

Capital – Khartoum. Area – 2,505,813sq.km. Languages – English,  Dinka, Nubian, etc. Religions –  Sunny Muslim70 0/0,Indigenous  beliefs 25 0/0 ,Christan50/0 . Currency –  Dinar. Date of  Independence –  1/1/ 1956.

(167)Suriname

Capital – Paramaribo. Area – 163,820sq.km. Languages – Dutch , English , Hindi , Sranantongo . Religions –Hindu 27.40/0,Muslim19.6 0/0,Roman Catholic22.80/0, Protestant25.20/0,Indigenous  beliefs 5 0/0 . Currency – Gulden/Suriname Guilder. Date of  Independence –  25/ 11/ 1975.

(168)Swaziland

Capital – Mbabane. Area – 17,363sq.km. Languages – English , Swazi . Religions – Zionist40 0/0,Roman Catholic 200/0,Muslim10 0/0 . Currency – Lilageni. Date of  Independence –  6/9 / 1968.

(169)Sweden

Capital – Stockholm. Area – 449,793sq.km. Languages – Swedish. Religions – Lutheran87 0/0,Roman Catholic, Orthodox,Baptist, Muslim,Jewish,Buddhist. Currency – Krona. Date of  Independence –  6/6 / 1523.

(170)Switzerland

Capital – Berne. Area – 41,293sq.km. Languages –  German , French , Italian, Romansch. Religions – Roman Catholic 46.1 0/0,Protestant400/0,others50/0 ,none8.90/0 . Currency – Franc. Date of  Independence –  1/8/ 1291.

(171)Syria

Capital – Damasucs. Area – 185,180sq.km. Languages – Arabic ,Kurdish Armenian . Religions – Muslim,Christan,Jewish . Currency – Syrian Pound. Date of  Independence –   17/4/1946.

(172)Taiwan

Capital – Taipei. Area – 35,981sq.km. Languages – Mandarin Chinese ,Taiwan , Hakka dialects . Religions – Buddhist,Confucian,Taoist93 0/0,Christan50/0, . Currency – New Taiwan Dollar.

(173)Tajikistan

Capital – Dushanbe. Area – 143,100sq.km. Languages – Tadzhik , Russian. Religions – Sunny Muslim 850/0 ,Shia Muslim 50/0 . Currency – Tajik Ruble. Date of  Independence –  9/9/ 1991.

(174)Tanzania

Capital – Dodoma. Area – 945,087sq.km. Languages – Kiswahili , English. Religions – Mainland  Christan30 0/0,Muslim35 0/0,Indigenous  beliefs 35 0/0 . Currency – Shilling. Date of  Independence –   26/4/1964.

(175)Thailand

Capital – Bangkok. Area – 513,115sq.km. Languages – Thai , Lao , Chinese , English, Malay. Religions –  Buddhist95 0/0,Muslim3.8 0/0,Christan0.50/0, Hindu 0.10/0,others0.60/0. Currency – Baht. Date of  Independence –   1238.

(176)Togo

Capital – Lome. Area – 56,785sq.km. Languages –French and Tribal languages. Religions – Indigenous  beliefs 51 0/0,Christan290/0,Muslim98 0/0 . Currency – CFA Franc. Date of  Independence –  27/4/1960.

(177)Tonga

Capital – Nuku’alofa. Area – 748sq.km. Languages – English,Tongan. Religions – Christan . Currency – Paanga. Date of  Independence –  4/6 / 1970.

(178)Trinidad and Tobago

Capital – Port-of-Spain. Area – 5128sq.km. Languages –English. Religions – Roman Catholic 29.4 0/0, Hindu 23.80/0,Anglican 10.9 0/0,Muslim5.8 0/0,Presbyterian 3.4 0/0, others26.70/0. Currency –  Tri & Tob Dollar. Date of  Independence –  31/8 / 1962.

(179)Tunisia

Capital – Tunis. Area – 7,310sq.km. Languages –  Arabic,  French.  Religions –  Muslim98 0/0,Christan10/0, Jewish,others10/0. Currency –  Dinar. Date of  Independence –  20/3 / 1956.

(180)Turkey

Capital – Ankara. Area – 779,452sq.km. Languages – Turkish, Kurdish, Arabic. Religions – Muslim99.8 0/0, others0.20/0 . Currency –  Turkish Lira. Date of  Independence –  29/10 / 1923.

(181)Turkmenistan

Capital – Ashkhabad(Poltoratsk). Area – 488,100sq.km. Languages – Turkmen,Russian. Religions – Muslim89 0/0,Eastern  Orthodox90/0, unknown20/0, . Currency –  Manat. Date of  Independence –  27/10 / 1991.

(182) Tuvalu

Capital – Funafuti. Area – 26sq.km. Languages – Tuvaluan,English. Religions – Church of Tuvalu97 0/0,Seventh-Day Adventist1.40/0,Bahai10/0,others0.60/0  . Currency – Australian   Dollar. Date of  Independence –  1/10 / 1978.

(183)Uganda

Capital – Kampala. Area – 241,139sq.km. Languages – English, Luganda, Entebbe. Religions – Roman Catholic 33 0/0,Protestant33 0/0,Muslim160/0,Indigenous  beliefs 180/0. Currency –  Uganda Shilling. Date of  Independence –  9/ 10/ 1962.

(184) The Ukraine

Capital – Kiev. Area – 603,700sq.km. Languages – Ukrainian,Russian. Religions – Ukrainian  Orthodox,Moscow Patriarchate,Kiev  Patriarchate,Autocephalous Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic,Protestant,Jewish. Currency – Hryvnia. Date of  Independence –  24/8 / 1991.

(185)United Arab Emirates

Capital – Abu Dhabi. Area – 82,880sq.km. Languages –  Arabic. Religions – Muslim96 0/0,Christan, Hindu,others40/0 . Currency – Dirham. Date of  Independence –  2/12 / 1971.

(186)United Kingdom

Capital – London. Area – 244,108sq.km. Languages – English, Welsh, Scottish, Gaelic. Religions – Anglican ,Roman Catholic,Muslim,PresbyterianMethodist, Sikh, Hindu, Jew, . Currency –  Pound Sterling. Date of  Independence –  1284.

(187)United States of America

Capital – Washington. Area – 9,372,614sq.km. Languages – English. Religions – Protestant56 0/0,Roman Catholic 280/0,Jewish20/0,others40/0 ,none100/0  . Currency – Dollar. Date of  Independence –  4/ 7/ 1776.

(188)Uruguay

Capital – Montevideo. Area – 176,215sq.km. Languages – Spanish. Religions – Roman Catholic 66 0/0,Protestant20/0,Jewish10/0,others310/0 . Currency – Peso. Date of  Independence –  25/8 / 1825.

(189)Uzbekistan

Capital – Tashkent. Area – 447,400sq.km. Languages – Uzbek,Russian. Religions – Muslim88 0/0,Eastern  Orthodox90/0, others30/0 . Currency – Som. Date of  Independence –  1/ 9/ 1991.

(190)Vanuatu

Capital – Vila. Area – 14,760sq.km. Languages – English, French, Bislama. Religions – Presbyterian 36.70/0,Roman Catholic 15 0/0,Indigenous  beliefs ,7.60/0,Seventh-Day Adventist 6.20/0,Church of Christ 3.80/0,others15.70/0 . Currency – Vatu. Date of  Independence –  30/ 7/ 1980.

(191)Vatican  City

Capital – Vatican  City. Area – 0.4sq.km. Languages – Latin, Italian. Religions – Roman Catholic  . Currency – Euro. Date of  Independence –  11/2 / 1929.

(192)Venezuela

Capital – Caracas. Area – 912,050sq.km. Languages – Spanish. Religions – Roman Catholic 96 0/0, Protestant20/0,others10/0 . Currency – Bolivar. Date of  Independence –  5/7 / 1811.

(193)Vietnam

Capital – Hanoi. Area – 329,566sq.km. Languages – Vietnamese, French, English, Chinese. Religions – Buddhist,Hoa,Hao,Christan , Indigenous  beliefs , Muslim  . Currency – Dong. Date of  Independence –  2/9 / 1945.

(194)Yemen

Capital – Aden. Area – 531,000sq.km. Languages – Arabic. Religions – Muslim ,Jew,Christan and Hindu . Currency – Rial. Date of  Independence –  22/5 / 1990.

(195)Zambia

Capital – Lusaka. Area – 752,620sq.km. Languages – Bantu  and English. Religions – Christia50-75 0/0, Muslim and Hindu 24-490/0,  Indigenous  beliefs10/0, . Currency – Kwacha. Date of  Independence –  24/10 / 1964.

(196)Zimbabwe

Capital – Harare. Area – 390,272sq.km. Languages – English, Shona, Ndebla. Religions – Syncretic50 0/0,Christan 250/0,   Indigenous  beliefs 24 0/0 , Muslim and others10/0 . Currency – Dollar(ZWD). Date of  Independence –  18/4 / 1980.

QUIZE

(Q)(1)What is the colour of the ‘black box’ of an aeroplane?

(Ans)– Bright orange.

(Q)(2) Who coined the  term ‘globalisation’?

(Ans)– Theodor  Levitt.

(Q)(3)So far, 4 presidnts of the US have been assassinatd  while in office. If Abraham Lincoln,Jhon F. Kennedy and James A. Garfield are three,who is the 4th?

(Ans)– William McKinley.

(Q)(4)Which famous chemist was accused of plotting to cheat the French government and executed on May8,1794?

(Ans)– Antoine  Lavoisire.

(Q)(5)The name of which food-item comes from an Italian  word meaning ‘pie’?

(Ans)– Pizza.

(Q)(6)Who was the 1st person to succefully climb Mount  Everest  solo  without using supplemental oxygen?

(Ans)– Reinhold Messner.

(Q)(7) In which city in India is Rashtrapati Nilayam located?

(Ans)– Hyderabad.

(Q)(8)Who taught Lord Krishna the Vedas?

(Ans)– Sandipani.

(Q)(9) In  which  session of the  Indian National Congress  was Vande  Mataram sung  for the first time?

(Ans)– 1896 Calcutta Session.

(Q)(10) To which class of animals do snails belong?

(Ans)– Molluscs.

(Q)(11)Which novelist and founder  member of  IPTA wrote the scripts films like Bobby and Jagte Raho?

(Ans)– Khwaja Ahmed Abbas.

(Q)(12) What is thanatology a study of?

(Ans)– Death.

(Q)(13)Which city in Madhya Pradesh is located in the vicinity of the famous marble rocks that rise like cliffs from the river  Narmada?

(Ans)– Jabalpur.

(Q)(14)Who swore in Jawaharlal Nehru as India’s first Prime Minister?

(Ans)– Lord Mountbattn.

(Q)(15)Which  loose flowing outer  garment  worn by the ancient  Romans derives its name from the Latin for “to cover”?

(Ans)– Toga.

(Q)(16)Aphrodite Terra and Ishtar Terra are the 2 major landmasses on which  planet?

(Ans)– Venus.

(Q)(17)What is the name of the giant cannon,the largest in India,housed in Jaigarh fort,and first installed in 1720?

(Ans)– Jaivana.

(Q)(18)What sporting title did Tsar Nicholas create at the end of a chess tournament held in St Petersburg in 1914?

(Ans)– Grandmaster.

(Q)(19)Who was  declared  Man of  the year for 1938 by time magazine?

(Ans)– Adolf Hitler.

(Q)(20)Which is the most abundant metallic element in the human body ?

(Ans)–  Calcium.

(Q)(21)From which Upanishad have the words ‘Satyameva Jayate’been taken?

(Ans)–  Mandak UpaniShad.

(Q)(22)The slogan of which movement dealt with the proveision of the five F’s-food,fuel,fodder,fertiliser and fibre?

(Ans)–  Cipko  Movement.

(Q)(23)Who was the founder of Bharat Anushilan Samity?

(Ans)– Satish  Candra Bose.

(Q)(24)What is divided into chapters called Mitrabheda, Mitralabha, Kakolukiya, Labdhapranasa and Apariksitakaraka?

(Ans)– Panchatantra.

(Q)(25)Which country’s  flag features stalks of suggarcane,a palm tree, bananas and a white dove?

(Ans)– Fiji.

(Q)(26)Which painter’s autobiography is Pandharpur Ka Ek Ladka?

(Ans)–  M .F.Husain.

(Q)(27)Which Union Territory derives its name from a mandir located in the village of Mani Majra?

(Ans)–  Chandigarh.

(Q)(28)Which scientist shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Medicine with Watson and Crick for his work on the structure of DNA?

(Ans)– Maurice Wilkins.

(Q)(29) What  is  the  colour  of  the  majority  of   balls  in  the  game  of  snooker?

(Ans)– Red.

(Q)(30)What is the name of the drug that Satyajit Ray’s Prof. Shonku invented as a sure cure for any ailment?

(Ans)– Miracure All.

(Q)(31) When  the  metric  system  was  created , what  was  defined  as  the  mass  of  1 cubic  decimetre  of  pure water at the temperature of its maximum density?

(Ans)– The kilogram.

(Q)(32)On  whose life is Bhavabhuti’s 8th century  play  Mahaviracharita principally based?

(Ans)– Rama.

(Q)(33) With   which  team  did  Brazilian  driver  Felipe  Massa  who  won  his first  F1  title at  the  2006  Turkish  Grand  Prix  begin  his  Formula  1  career?

(Ans)– Sauber.

(Q)(34)Who wrote the script for Bimal Roy’s Do Bigha Zameen,based on a story by Salil Choudhury?

(Ans)– Hrishikesh Mukherjee.

(Q)(35)Which rishi’s parents were sage Parashara and the fisherwoman Matsyagandha?

(Ans)– Vyasa.

(Q)(36) Which  Prime  Minister’s  first  names   are  Anthony  Charles  Lynton?

(Ans)– Tony Blair.

(Q)(37)What children’s publication did filmmakers B.Nagi Reddi and his friend Chakrapani found in 1947?

(Ans)– Chandamama.

(Q)(38) Yours Forever is the English version of which  Rajshri Film?

(Ans)– Hum Apke Hain Kaun.

(Q)(39)Which Political leader has authored The Garden of Life – An introduction to the Healing Plants of India?

(Ans)– Naveen Patnaik.

(Q)(40) The name of  which flower  means ‘golden flower’ in Latin?

(Ans)–  Chrysanthemum.

(Q)(41)Which   Mughal emperor is said to have offered his life to God in exchange for his son and died within one year of his son’s recovery?

(Ans)– Babur.

(Q)(42) Which  game is named for the country estate of the dukes of Beaufort in Gloucestershire?

(Ans)– Badminton.

(Q)(43) Jolly Grant airport is  closest to which state capital of India?

(Ans)– Dehra Dun.

(Q)(44)Which  scientist  used a phonograph to record the human voice by singing  Mary had a little Lamb?

(Ans)– Thomas Alva Edison.

(Q)(45) Which First Lady of the United States was the first to be elected to public office and the first woman elected independently statewide in New York State?

(Ans)– Hilary Rodham  Clinton.

(Q)(46) What is  is agnotology the study of?

(Ans)– Ignorance.

(Q)(47) What  is the common name for the large rays(fish),  that  make up the family Dasyatidae,  having broad , flattened pectoral fins that gi ve them an almost diamond shape?

(Ans)– Stingray.

(Q)(48) Who was the first chief minister of Jharkhand?

(Ans)– Babulal Marandi.

(Q)(49) Of which actress did Stephen Hawking once say “I suppose you could say she was a model of the universe!”?

(Ans)– Marilyn Monroe.

(Q)(50) Which folk singer from Bengal provided the music for the Shyam film Arohan?

(Ans)– Purna Das Baul.

(Q)(51) What is the collective noun for a  group of ants?

(Ans)– Colony.

(Q)(52) Which   sportsman lends his name to the spinal disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ?

(Ans)– Lou Gehrig.

(Q)(53) What does ‘pundarik’ mean in ‘Pundarikaksha’, a name for Lord  Vishnu?

(Ans)– Lotus.

(Q)(54) Which  variety of soil is referred to as Bhabbar ,  Khadar  and Bhangar in different  regions of India?

(Ans)– Alluvial

(Q)(55) Who was the first criketer to receive the Arjuna Award?

(Ans)– Salim Durrani.

(Q)(56) What is the Ramanujan number,  which is the smallest number that can be represented as the sum  of two cubes in two differnt way?

(Ans)– 1729.

(Q)(57) Who  said “A penalty is a  cowardly way to score”?

(Ans)– Pele.

(Q)(58) ‘Hawkeye State’ is the nicname of  which  state of  the United State of America?

(Ans)– Iowa.

(Q)(59)  In 1972, who became  the  first  person to win a  second  Nobel Prize for Physics?

(Ans)– John Bardeen.

(Q)(60) Razm-Namah is a Persian translation of   which   Indian  work?

(Ans)– Mahabharata.

(Q)(61) Which nut are dishes described as ‘amandine’served with ?

(Ans)– Almonds.

(Q)(62) What  was the name of   husband of  Noor Jahan?

(Ans)– Sher Afghan.

(Q)(63) In Norse mythology   which  son   of  Sif   was married   to the thunder god Thor?

(Ans)– Ull.

(Q)(64) Which  English footballer’s latest autobiography is My Story So Far?

(Ans)– Wayne Rooney.

(Q)(65) Who was the first Prime minister in Thailand’s history to lead an elected government  through a full four – year term in office?

(Ans)– Thaksin Shinawatra.

(Q)(66) Which novel, made into a film  deals with US- based NRI characters called Ashoke and Ashima Ganguli?

(Ans)– The Namesake.

(Q)(67) Which American athlete broke Bob Beamon’s long jump record of 890 metres?

(Ans)– Mike Powell.

(Q)(68) In which Pakistani province is the world heritage site of Texila situated ?

(Ans)– Punjab.

(Q)(69) If  the five – toed dragon symbolised the Emperor of China, which creature represented the Empress ?

(Ans)– Phoenix.

(Q)(70) Which fruit belonging to the genus Musa of the family Musaceae has its name often used to describe the state of  becoming crazy or angry?

(Ans)– Banana.

(Q)(71) According to the Ramayana,in which river did Lord Rama take jal-samadhi and attained Vaikuntha ?

(Ans)– Sarayu.

(Q)(72) What phrase or abbreviation ends Proposition 5 in the first Book of Euclid’s treatise on geometry,Elements?

(Ans)– Q.E.D.(Quod erat demonstrandum – thus is it proved)

(Q)(73) Who was the first non-party legislator to become a chief minister in the country after the first general elections in 1952?

(Ans)– Prafulla Chandra Ghosh(W.B.).

(Q)(74) What  publication was founded in 1843 “to take part in a severe contest between intelligence,which presses forward,and an unworthy,timid ignorance obstructing our progress” ?

(Ans)– The Economist.

(Q)(75) Which  of  Herge’s  work  was  published  in  an  unfinshed  form  in  1986?

(Ans)– Tintin and the Alpha-Art.

(Q)(76) The Blue Peacock,the Kaiser-E-Hind,the Dipper and the Bhutan Glory are different species of  which winged creature?

(Ans)– Butterflies.

(Q)(77) The ground of which football club played host to the 2006 World Cup final?

(Ans)– Hertha Berlin.

(Q)(78) Which  media  planner  made  his  Hindi  film  debut  with  Jism?

(Ans)– John Abraham.

(Q)(79) What is the loss of sense of smell called?

(Ans)– Anosmia.

(Q)(80) According to the Guinness Book of World Records,which is the most popular song in the English language?

(Ans)– Happy Birthday to You.

(Q)(81) In Indian history,who established the city of Jahanpanah?

(Ans)– Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.

(Q)(82) Which famous mythical hero died when he wore a tunic smeared with the blood of the centaur Nessus?

(Ans)– Hercules.

(Q)(83) In which country is the Etosha National Park and the Mangetti Game Reserve?

(Ans)– Namibia.

(Q)(84) The incoming Hindi translation of  whose political memoirs is titled Agnipath?

(Ans)– Pervez Musharraf.

(Q)(85) Which   venomous  North  American  snakes  are  so  named  because  of the  sound  made  by their tails that  shake  vigorously  to  warn  off  intruders?

(Ans)– Rattlesnake.

(Q)(86) Which legendary Tamil actress made her debut in dancer Uday Shankar’s Hindi film Kalpana in 1948?

(Ans)– Padmini.

(Q)(87) Which country’s recent election result have made way for Fredrik Reinfeldt to become its new PM ?

(Ans)– Sweden.

(Q)(88) Which 347- room palace designed by H.V. Lancaster stands on the Chittar hill in Jodhpur and was commissioned in 1929 as a famine relief exercise?

(Ans)– Umaid Bhawan.

(Q)(89) Which  painter  known  for  depicting the nightlife of late 19-th  century Paris   painted  a  work   titled  ‘La  Goulue  Entering  the  Moulin  Rouge’?

(Ans)– Henri de Toulouse Lautrec.

(Q)(90) According to  Hindu  mythology   which sage was blessed by Lord Shiva to remain at sixteen years of age for ever?

(Ans)– Markandeya.

(Q)(91) Which 18th  century  French naturalist wrote  Histoire Naturelle, a 36- volume work,which was the first naturalistic account of the history of the Earth?

(Ans)– Georges Buffon.

(Q)(92) Which word in the English language is derived from the Hindustani for ‘belonging to Bengal’?

(Ans)– Bungalow.

(Q)(93) Which Nobel Peace Prize winning organisation had as its president  Carlo Urbani,the doctor who first identified the SARS,and eventually died of it in 2003 ?

(Ans)– Medecins Sans Frontiers(Doctors without Border).

(Q)(94) In which state of India is the Rudrasagar Lake located?

(Ans)– Tripura.

(Q)(95) Which Pakistani batsman hit a six on the last ball of an ODI to tie the match?

(Ans)– Asif Mujtaba(against Australia).

(Q)(96) Who is the author of  plays titled Karnabharam, Urubhangam and Svapnavasavadattam?

(Ans)– Bhasa.

(Q)(97) Which Nobel Laureate was first admitted  to  Oriental  Seminary  School?

(Ans)– Rabindranath Tagore.

(Q)(98) By what name is Marie Grasholtz who first exhibiited her work in 1835 at Baker Street ?

(Ans)– Madame Tussauds.

(Q)(99) Made in 1932 , which film starring Nissar had 71 songs?

(Ans)– Indra Sabha.

(Q)(100) In Norse mythology, who is the goddess of love,beauty and youth?

(Ans)– Freya.

(Q)(101) Who wrote the autobiographical collection of  poems, A Child’s Garden of Verses?

(Ans)– R.L.Stevenson.

(Q)(102) The currency of which American nation was named after Vasco Nunez de Balboa?

(Ans)– Panama.

(Q)(103)  Which   city  is  served  by   the  newly  opened   Suvarnabhumi  Airport  ?

(Ans)– Bangkok.

(Q)(104) Who along with Muzaffar Ahmad founded the Communist Party of India and served as its chairman?

(Ans)– Shripad Amrit Dange.

(Q)(105) What new title did Jane Austen give to her re-worked novel earlier named First Impressions?

(Ans)– Pride and Prejudice.

(Q)(106) Who has scored the maximum runs in the ICC  Champions Trophy  matches since its inception  in 1998?

(Ans)– Sourav Ganguly.

(Q)(107) Unmadana and Sammohana are the names of the arrows of  which Hindu God?

(Ans)– Kamadeva.

(Q)(108) What is the common name of the animal having the scientific name Daboia russellii, belonging to family Viperidae?

(Ans)– Russell’s Viper.

(Q)(109) Subansiri, Dhansiri and Manas are the principal tributaries of which river?

(Ans)– Brahmaputra.

(Q)(110) From 1943 to 1945, who was the director of  Los Alamos Laboratory in New Mexico,where the first  atomic bombs were developed?

(Ans)– Robert Oppenheimer.

(Q)(111) Which fruit of the genus Citrus derives its name from the Persian word Narang?

(Ans)– Orange.

(Q)(112) Who directed landmark TV serials like Byomkesh Bakshi, Kakkaji  Kahin,Bhim Bhawani and Rajani?

(Ans)– Basu Chatterjee.

(Q)(113) The  commonly  used  word ‘cab’  originated  from  which  french  word?

(Ans)– Cabriolet.

(Q)(114) Who  is  some  times  referred  to  as  the  ‘father  of  modern  chemistry’?

(Ans)– Robert Boyle.

(Q)(115) The  prime  minidter  and  president  of  which country are the world’s only twins to hold the two highest posts in any country?

(Ans)– Poland.

(Q)(116) Whos  experiences in Spain  were  described  in  Homage  to  Catalonia?

(Ans)– George Orwell.

(Q)(117) Which country celebrats its national holiday on January 26, which is  the  anniversary  of  Captain  Arthur  Philip  unfurling  the  British  flag  there?

(Ans)– Australia.

(Q)(118) Which  fictional character was born on January 6,1854?

(Ans)– Sherlock Holmes.

(Q)(119) Which Lodi sultan shifted his capital to Agra?

(Ans)– Sikander Lodi.

(Q)(120)  The  youngest   person   to  be   granted   a   patent   in  the  US  is  a  four -year – old  girl  from  Houston , Texas.  What  has  she  developed  an  aid  for ?

(Ans)– Grasping Knobs.

(Q)(121) Which male golfer has won the  most  number  of  Grand  Slam  titles?

(Ans)– Jack Nicklaus.

(Q)(122) Which bird can fly backward?

(Ans)– Hummingbird.

(Q)(123) What are ping pong balls made of?

(Ans)– Celluloid.

(Q)(124) Which mountain peak is called Chomolungma in Tibet?

(Ans)– Mt Everest.

MEN’S HOCKEY WORLD CUP AT A GLANCE(1971- 2006)

1971-  Pakistan  bt  Spain 1- 0.

1973-  The Netherlands bt India 6-4.

1975-  India bt Pakistan 2-1.

1978-  Pakistan  bt Holand 3-2.

1982-  Pakistan  bt West Germany 3-1.

1986-  Australia  bt England 2-1.

1990-  The Netherlands bt Pakistan 3-1.

1994-  Pakistan  bt The Netherlands 5-4.

1998-  The Netherlands bt Spain 3-2.

2002-   Germany bt Australia 2-1.

2006-   Germany bt Australia 4 -3.

FACTS ABOUT INDIA

Standerd time- 82o 3’E.

Most populous District- Medinipur.

Least  populous District- Yanam.

Most  Literate District-   Aiawl.

Largest State-  Rajasthan.

Smallest State-  Goa.

Most populous State- UP.

Least  populous State- Sikim.

Southern most point-   Indira point.

Max. N-S distance – 3,214 km.

Max. E-W distance – 2,933 km.

Golden Quadrilateral connecting 4metros- distance – 5846 km.

Major Ports on coastline- 12-(181others).

SOFT TARGETS

24\9\02 – Gunmen storm Akshardham temple in Gandhinagar killing over 20 people.

24\12\04 – A grenade blast near a Srinagar mosque kills 2 persons.

5\7\2005- Terrorists attack the makeshift Ram temple.

7\3\06 –  A blast at the Sankat mochan temple in Varanasi   just before Holi.

12\8\06-  A grenade blast near a Guwahati temple kills a lady.

16\8\06 – Blast in the Iskcon temple in  Imphal at the  night of janmastam1.

8\9\06 – Blast in the kabar sthan of Mahelgano at the day of sabe barat

THE FIVE WORST AIR DISASTERS

3\3\1974 – Turkish DC 10 crashes northeast of Paris. 351killed.

27\3\1977 – 2 Boeing 747s operated by Pan American and KLM collide at the airport on Tenerife in spain;s Canary Islands,582 killed.

23\6\1985 –  Air – India Boeing 747 329 killed.

12\8\1985 – Japan Air Lines Boeing 747 crashes into a mountain on a domestic flight. 520 killed.

12\11\1996 – Mid – air crash of 2 airlines (Saudi and Kazakh) in Bhiwani district, Haryna,351killed.

WORLD’S TOP TEN POPULAR TOURIST DESTINATIONS

Country                                                No. of international visitors

France                                                    75m

Spain                                                   51.8m

USA                                                     41.2m

Italy                                                    39.6m

China                                                     33m

UK                                                       24.7m

Austria                                                19.1m

Mexico                                               18.7m

Germany                                                            18.4m

Canada                                              17.5m

 ‘A SMALL SLAM’ ACHIEVERS

Players who have won three of the four Grand Slam tournaments in the same year,are said to have achieved ‘a small slam’. The following is the list.

Jack Crawford (Aus,1933)-Australian,French,US Open.

Fred Perry (Eng,1934)- Australian,Wimbledon,US Open.

Tony Trabert (US,1955)- French,Wimbledon,US Open.

Lew Hoad (Aus,1956)-Australian Open ,French Open,Wimbledon.

Ashley Cooper (Aus,1958)- Australian,Wimbledon,US Open.

Roy Emerson (Aus,1964)- Australian,Wimbledon,US Open.

Jimmy Connors (US,1974)- Australian,Wimbledon,US Open.

Mats Wilander (Swe,1988)-Australian,French,US Open.

Roger Federer (Sui,2004)- Australian,Wimbledon,US Open.

Roger Federer(Sui,2006)- Australian,Wimbledon,US Open.

US OPEN(2006)

Men’s Singles – Roger Federer (1,Sui)bt Andy Roddick(9,US)6-2, 4-6, 7-5,6-1.

Women’s Singles – Maria Sharapova (3,Rus)bt Justine Henin Hardenne(2,Bel)6-4,6-4.

Men’s Doubles – Leander Paes (6,Ind)& Martin Damm(6,Cze) bt Jonas Bjorkman(2,Swe)& Max Mirnyi(2,Bir) 6-7 (7-5),6-4,6-3.

Women’s Doubles –  Nathalie Dechy (Fra) & Vera Zvonareva (Rus) bt Dinara Safina (8,Rus) & Katarina Srebotnik (8,Slo)7-6,7-5.

Mixed Doubles –  Martina Navratilova and Bob Bryan(5,US) bt Kveta Peschke and Martin Damm(Cze)6-2,6-3.

Boys Singles – Dusan Lojda (10,Cze) bt Peter Polansky(Can)7-6(7-4),6-3.

Girls Singles – Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova (1,Rus) bt Tamira Paszek(11,Aut)3-6,6-4,7-5.

Boys Doubles – Jamie Hunt & Nathaniel Schnugg(US) bt Jarmere Jenkins & Austin Krajicek (US) 6-3,6-3.

Girls  Doubles – Mihaela Buzarnescu & Raluca Olaru (2,Rom) bt Sharon Fichman (1,Can) & Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova (1,Rus)7-5,6-2.

WHERE THEY  REST

Mahtma Gandhi –  Rajghat.

Jawaharlal Nehru –  Santhivan.

B.R. Ambedkar –  Chaithrabhoomi.

Indira Gandhi –  Sakthisthal.

Charan Singh –  Kisan Ghat.

Zail Singh –  Ekthashal.

Rajiv Gandhi –  Veerbhoomi.

Morarji Desai –  Abhayghat.

Gulzarilal Nanda –  Narayanghat.

Jagjivan Ram –  Samathastal.

Lal Bahadur Shastri –  Vijayghat.

SIZZLING SACHIN(1994- 2006)

186* –  vs NZ,Nov.8, 1999.

152 –  vs Nam,Feb.23, 2003.

146 –  vs Ken,Oct.24, 2001.

146 –  vs Zim,Dec.8, 2000.

143 –  vs Aus,April.22, 1998.

141* –  vs WI,Sept.14, 2006.

141 –  vs Pak,March.16, 2004.

141 –  vs Aus,Oct.28, 1998.

140* –  vs Ken,May.23,1999.

139 –  vs Aus,March.31, 2001.

137 –  vs SL,March.2,1996.

134 –  vs Aus,April.24, 1998.

128 –  vs SL, July 7,1998.

127* –  vs Zim,Sept.26,1998.

127* –  vs  Ken,Feb.18, 1996.

124* –  vs Zim,Nov.13, 1998.

123 –  vs Pak,April.12,2005.

122* –  vs WI,July 4, 2001.

122 –  vs  SA,March.17, 2000.

120 –  vs SL, Aug.29,1999.

118* –  vs ZIM,Nov.8, 1998.

118 –  vs Pak,April.15, 1996.

117 –  vs NZ,May.14,1997.

115 –  vs NZ,Oct.28, 1994.

114 –  vs  SA,Dec.14,1996.

113 –  vs SL, July 11,2002.

112* –  vs SL, April.9, 1995.

110 –  vs SL,  Aug.28,1996.

110 –  vs  Aus,Sept.9, 1994.

105* –  vs Eng,Sept.4,2002.

105 –  vs WI,Nov.11, 1994.

104 –  vs Zim,Feb.9, 1997.

102 –  vs NZ,Nov.15,2003.

101 –  vs  SA.Oct.5, 2001.

101 –  vs  SL,Oct.20, 2000.

100* –  vs Ken,May.31,1998.

100 –  vs  Aus,Oct.26,2003.

100- vs  Aus,April.7, 1998.

100- vs Pak, April.5, 1996.

100- vs Pak ,Feb.6, 2006.

INDIA’S TRIPLE TREATS(1995-2006)

376/2 –  vs NZ ( 1999-00).

373/6 – vs  SL ( 1999)

356/9 – vs Pak(2004-05)

353/5 – vs NZ(2003-04)

351/3 –   vs Ken(2001-02)

350/6 – vs  SL(2005-06)

349/7 – vs Pak(2003-04)

348/5 –   vs Ban(2004-05)

333/6 –vs Zim(2001-02)

329/2-  vs Ken ( 1999)

328  – vs Pak(2005-06)

326/8 –  vs Eng(2002)

325/5- vs WI(2002-03)

319/6 –vs Zim(2001-02)

317- vs Pak(2003-04)

316/7- vs Pak(1997-98)

315- vs Aus(2000-01)

315/6-vs Pak(2004-05)

311/2- vs Nam(2002-03)

310- vs  SA ( 1999-00)

309/5- vs Aus(1997-98)

309/5- vs WI (2006-07)

307/6-vs  SL (1998)

307/8- vs Aus(1998-99)

307/4- vs  SA(2003)

306-  vs NZ( 1999-00)

306/5-vs Zim(2000-01)

305/5-vs Pak(1995-96)

304- vs  SL (2002)

303/4- vs Aus(2003-04)

303/4- vs  SL (2005-06)

302/7- vs  SA ( 1999-00)

301/213-vs Zim(1997-98)

301/6-vs Zim(2000-01)

300/7-vs  SL (1997)

 

DEPUTY PMs(1947-2004)

Sardar Patel –  1947-50.

Morarji Desai –  1967-69.

Charan  Singh and Jagjivan Ram(jointly) –  1979.

Yashwantrao Chavan –  1979-80.

Devi Lal –  1989-90.

Devi Lal –  1990-91.

L.K. Advani –  2002-04.

PLANET NAMES

The term ‘planets’is dervied from the Greek word ‘planetes’-meaning wanderers.

The planets were named after the Roman Gods.

Mercury – God of commerce,eloquence,skill.

V enus – Goddess  of  spring,bloom,beauty.

Mars – God of war.

Jupiter – Ruler of Gods and all men.

Saturn – God of agriculture.

Uranus – God of  Heavens.

Neptune – God of  the sea.

HIGHEST SIXTH-WICKET PARTNERSHIPS IN ODIs(1991-2006)

166,M.Hussey/B. Haddin –  Aus vs WI , Sept.18,2006.

161,M. Odumbe/ A. Vadher- Ken vs  SL ,May 30,1999.

158,Yuvraj Singh/M. Dhoni-  Ind vs Zim, Sept.4,2005.

154, R. Richardson/J. Dujon-  WI vs Pak, Oct.21,1991.

150,M. Vaughan/G. Jones- Eng vs Zim, Dec. 5,2004.

145*,M.Hussey/ S. Watson-Aus vs WI ,Oct.9,2005.

ODI CENTURY SCORD  ON  DEBUT  AS  CAPTAIN-(1975-2006)

171*, Glenn Turner- NZ vs EAF. June 7, 1975.

110,Sachin Tendulkar- Ind vs SL,Aug. 28,1996.

109*,Mike  Hussey-Aus vs WI , Sept.18,2006.

106*,Richie Richardson-WI vs Pak, Oct.17,1991.

102, Sanath Jayasuriya- SL vs Zim,Jan. 26,1998.

101, Irvine Romaine-  Ber vs Can Aug. 21,2006.

DEFENDING LOW TOTALS OF INDIA

125 in 42.4 ovs- bt Pak(1984-85)

162 in 47.4 ovs- bt NZ(1980-81)

162 in 39.3 ovs- bt WI(2006-07)

170/7 in 40 ovs- bt Pak(1978-79)

179 in 49.5 ovs- bt SL(1998-99)

 HIGHIEST ODI TEAM TOTALS

443/9- by SL  vs NL(July 4 ,2006)

438/9- by SA  vs Aus( March12 ,2006)

434/4- by Aus  vs SA(March 12 ,2006)

418/5- by SA  vs  Zim(Sept.20 ,2006)

398/5- by SL  vs Ken(March 6  ,1996)

FASTEST ODI  CENTURIES

37 balls – S. Afridi(102).

44 balls – M. Boucher(147*).

45 balls – B.Lara(117).

45 balls – S. Afridi(102).

48 balls – S. Jayasuriya(134).

COUNTRY SYMBOLS

Country                                                Symbol

India                                      Royal Bengal tiger

Canada                                 Maple leaf

USA                                        Bald eagle

Colombia                              Orchid

Spain                                      Red carnation

Russia                                    Brown bear

Japan                                     Cherry blossom

Denmark                                               Beech tree

South Africa                         Blue crane

Greece                                    Olive branch

China                                     Dragon

Argentina                              Ceibo(flower)

Bulgaria                                 Lion

England                                 Rose

Wales                                     Leek,dragon

Scotland                                                Thistle

Turkey                                   Tulip

Australia                                Golden wattle flower

Ireland                                   Shamrock

TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSES(2002-2010)

Date                                       Visible from parts of

4/12/2002                             S. Africa,Australia

23/11/2003                           Antarctica

8/4/2005                                               S&C Pacific,C. America

29/3/2006                             C.Atlantic,W&N Africa, Asia

1/8/2008                                               Greenland,N&C  Asia

22/7/2009                             S Asia,C Pacific

11/7/2010                             S Pacific

GREETING PEOPLE

Namaste/Namaskar- In Hindi.

Ahlan wasahlan- In Arabic.

Hallo- In English.

Vanakkam- In Tamil.

Namaskaram- In Malayalam.

Bonjour- In French.

Zdravstvuyitye- In Russia.

Guten Tag – In German.

Buongiorno- In Italian.

Assalm-u- alaikum- In Urdu.

Nin hao – In Mandarin.

Sat Sri Akal- In Punjabi.

Nomoskar- In Bengali.

TOP 20 URBAN CENTRES

URBAN CENTRES                                            POPULATION

1.Tokyo,Japan                                                     26,683,000

2.Sao Paulo,Brazil                                                               18,916,000

3.Mexico City,Mexico                                        18,580,000

4.Mumbai,India                                                  17,384,000

5.New York City,USA                                         16,979,000

6.Dhaka,Bangladesh                                          14,414,000

7.Delhi,India                                                         14,067,000

8.Kolkata,India                                                   13,784,000

9.Los Angeles,US                                 13,541,000

10.Shanghai,China                                             13,023,000

11.Buenos Aires,Argentina                                12,271,000

12.Jakarta,Indonesia                                          12,234,000

13.Karachi,Pakistan                                           11,058,000

14.Osaka,Japan                                                   11,013,000

15.Rio de Janeiro,Brazil                                     10,958,000

16.Beijing,China                                                  10,486,000

17.Manila,Philippines                                         10,380,000

18.Logos,Nigeria                                                  10,034,000

19.Seol, Republic of Korea                                                 9,888,000

20.Cairo,Egypt                                                       9,833,000

FOREIGN BORN RULERS

Name                                     Country         Post                               Born in

Carlos Menem                     Argentina      President                        Syria

Alberto Fujimori                  Peru                President                        Japan

Abdala Bucaram                                 Ecuador         President                        Lebanon

Janet Jagan                           Guyana          President                       America

Adlof Hitler                           Germany        Chancellor                   Austria

Kenneth  Kaunda                               Zambia           President                      Malawi

Hendrick Verwoerd             South Africa  Prime Minister             Holland

Adrene Poi Clarkson           Argentina      Gov-General                 Hong Kong

WORLD POPULATION-2005

CONTINENTS                                    POPULATION

Asia                                                                                3,879,000,000

Africa                                                                                877,500,000

Europe                                                                              727,000,000

North America                                                                501,500,000

South America                                                                379,500,000

Australia/Oceania                                                            32,000,000

Antarctica                                                                                          0

Total                                                                           6,396,500,000

UN SECRETARIES GENERAL

Year                                       Name                                                       Nation

1946                                       Trygve Lie                               Norway

1953                                       Dag Hammarskjold              Sweden

1961                                       U Thant                                                   Burma

1972                                       Kurt Waldheim                                      Austria

1982                                       Javier Peres De Cuellar         Peru

1992                                       Dr. Boutros Boutros Ghali    Egypt

1997                                       Kofi Annan                            Ghana

THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD

SEVEN WONDERS OF THE   ANCIENT  WORLD

(1)The Colossus of  Rhodes.

(2)ThePharos(lighthouse)at Alexandria.

(3)The Hanging Gardens (and Walls)of Babylon.

(4)The temple of Artemis (or Diana)at Ephesus.

(5)The Pyramids of Khufu.

(6)The tomb of Mausolus at Hali carnassus.

(7)The Statue  of Zeus at Olympia.

SEVEN WONDERS OF THE  MIDDLE AGE

(1)The Colosseum of Rome.

(2)The Catacombs of  Alexandria.

(3)The Great Wall of China.

(4)Stonehenge

(5)The Porcelain Tower(or Pagoda) of Nanking,China.

(6)Leaning Tower of Pisa,Italy.

(7)Hagia Sophia(or Sancta Sophia) of Constantinople.

SEVEN  NATURAL WONDERS OF THE  WORLD

(1)The Grand Canyon,Colorado River,Airzona.

(2)Rio de Janeiro harbour.

(3)Iquassu Falls,Argentina.

(4)Yosemite Vally and the Giant Sequioas of California.

(5)Mount Everest,on the border of Tibet and Nepal.

(6)The Nile River,Egypt.

(7)The Northern Lights,especially from northern Canada and Alaska.

SEVEN WONDERS OF TODAY

(1)The Great Pyramid of Egypt and the adjacent Great Sphinx Gizeh.

(2)Hagia Sophia,6th century,in present-day Istanbul.

(3)Leaning Tower of Pisa,Italy.

(4)The Taj Mahal of Agra,India.

(5)The Washington Monument,Washington.

(6)The Eiffel Tower,Paris.

(7)The Empire State Building,New York city.

RIVERS THROUGH WORLD CITIES

CITY                                     RIVER

Antwerp                                                                                         Scheldt

Baghdad                                                                       Tigris

Bangkok                                                                                       Chao phraya

Berlin                                                                             Spree

Bonn                                                                              Rhine and Seig

Budapest                                                                       Danube

Cairo                                                                                              Nile

Dublin                                                                            Liffey

Dresden                                                                                         Elbe

Glasgow                                                                                         Clyde

Lisbon                                                                            Tagus

London                                                                                          Thames

Madrid                                                                           Manzanares

Montreal                                                                       St.Lawrence and Ottawa

Moscow                                                                                         Moskva

New York                                                                      Hudson

Paris                                                                               Seine

Philadelphia                                                                  Delaware

Prague                                                                            Vltava

Rotterdam                                                                    Rhine,Maas,Scheldt

Shanghai                                                                       Hwangpu

Sydney                                                                                          Darling

Warsaw                                                                                         Vistula

Washington                                                                  Potomac

NATIONAL ANTHEMS

India –  Jana Gana Mana Adhinayaka joya he,Bharata bhagya bidhata.

Bangladesh –  Amar Sonar Bangla,Ami Tomay  Bhalobasi(My golden Bengal,I love you).

Canada –  O Canada,Our Home and Native Land.

China –  March of the Volunteers.

Cyprus –  Ode to Freedom.

Dominica –  Isle of Beauty.

Estonia –  My Fatherland.

Germany –  Unity and Right and   Freedom.

Greece –  Hymn to  Freedom.

Hungary – God Bless Hungarians.

Iceland –  O God of Our Country.

Japan –  Kimi ga yo wa(May your Peaceful Reign Last Long).

Myanmer(Burma) –  We shall Love Burma Evermore.

Pakistan –  Quami Tarana.

Panama –  Victory is Ours at Last.

Russia –  Slavsya(Be Great).

Saudi Arabia –  Long Live Our Beloved King.

Sri Lanka –  Sri Lanka Matha , Apa  Sri Lanka(Mother  Sri Lanka,thy  Sri Lanka).

Tanzania –  God Bless Africa.

UK –  God Save the Queen.

USA –  The Star -Spangled Banner.

Zimbabwe –  Blessed be the Country of Zimbabwe.

ODI HATTRICKS

Jalal – ud – Din(Pak) –  vs Aus(20/9/1982).

Bruce Reid(Aus) –  vs NZ(29/1/1986).

Chetan Sharma(Ind) –  vs NZ(31/10/1987).

Wasim Akram(Pak) –  vs WI(20/9/1982).

Wasim Akram(Pak) –  vs Aus(4/5/1990).

Kapil Dev(Ind) –  vs Sl(4/1/1991).

Aaqib Javed(Pak) –  vs Ind(25/10/1991).

Danny Morrison(NZ) –  vs Ind(25/3/1994).

Waqar Younis(Pak) –  vs  NZ(19/12/1994).

Saqlain Mushtaq (Pak) –  vs Zim(3/11/1996).

Eddo Brandes(Zim) –  vs Eng(3/1/1997).

Anthony Stuart(Aus) –  vs Pak(16/1/1997).

Saqlain Mushtaq (Pak) –  vs Zim(11/6/1999).

Chaminda Vaas(SL) –  vs Zim(8/12/2001).

Mohammed Sami (Pak) –  vs WI(15/2/2002).

Chaminda Vaas(SL) –  vs Ban(14/2/2003).

Brett Lee(Aus) –  vs  Ken(15/3/2003).

James Anderson(Eng) –  vs Pak(20/6/2003).

Steve Harmison(Eng) –  vs Ind(1/9/2004).

Chari Langeveldt(SA) –  vs WI(11/5/2005).

Shahadat Hossain(Ban) –  vs Zim(2/8/2006).

Jarome Taylor(WI) –  vs Aus(18/10/2006).

PIOs IN POWER ABROD

Name                                     Country             Year          Post

Mahendra Chaudhary          Fiji                                    1999          Prime Minister

C.V. Devan Nair                    Singapore        1981          President

S.R. Nathan                            Singapore        1999          President

Mahathir Mohammed          Malaysia          1981         Prime Minister

Cheddi Jagan                          Guyana             1953        Prime Minister

1992          President

Bharat Jagdeo                         Guyana             1999        President

Sir Shivsagar Ramgoolam                    Mauritius          1988        Prime Minister

Naveen Chandra Ramgoolam Mauritius        1995          Prime Minister

Annerood Jugnauth               Mauritius          1882          Prime Minister

Veerasamy Ringadoo            Mauritius          1992        President

Cassam  Uteem                      Mauritius          1992        President

Noor Hassanani     Trinidad &Tobago            1989       President

Basudev Pande      Trinidad &Tobago            1995       Prime Minister

Jules Wijdenbosch                  Suriname           1996       President

Krishnaprasad Bhattarai      Nepal                1990         Prime Minister

Manmohan Adhikari             Nepal                                1994         Prime Minister

INDIAN NOBEL LAUREATES

(1)Rabindranath Tagore,Literature,1913.

(2)C.V.Raman,Physics,1930.

(3)Hargobind Khorana,Medicine,1968.

(4)Mother Teresa,Peace,1979.

(5)Subramanian Chandrasekhar*,Physics,1983.

(6)Amartya Sen,Economics,1998.

(7)V.S.Naipaul*,Literature,2001.

*Of Indian descent.

THE INTERNATIONAL INVESTIGATING ORGANIZATIONS

1.C I A(USA).

  1. F B I(USA).
  2. K G B(RUSSIA).

4.I S I(PAKISTAN)(J I X, J I B, J C I B, J I N, J I M, J S I B,J I T).

5.I B – INDIA.

  1. R A W-INDIA.
  2. M I-INDIA.

8.C B I-INDIA.

THE INTERNATIONAL   TERRORIST  ORGANIZATIONS

1.A N O(1974). 2. A S G(1991). 3. A A M B(2000). 4. A A I(2001). 5. A I G(1992). 6. A A A 7.A S(1987) . 8. B F L 9.C P P/N P A(1969). 10. C I R A 11. G A I(1973).12.HAMAS(1987).13. H U M(1985).14. HIJBULLAH(1982). 15. I M U 16. J E M(2000).J I 18. A G 19.K C(1994). 20.K G, K W P 21. L E T(1989). 22. L E J(1996). 23.L T T E(1976).24. L I F G 25. M E K 26. N L A(1965). 27. P I J 28. P L F 29. P F L P(1967). 30.P F L P G C(1968). 31.A Q(1988). 32. R I R A(1998). 33. R A F C(1964).34. R N(1995).35. R O 17 NOVEMBER(1975).36.R P L A 37. S G C C(1992).38. S L 39.T Q J F B A R(2003).40. U S D F C(1997).

THE  ACTIVE TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS OF INDIA

TRIPURA- 1.A T T F 2. N L F T 3. B N C T

NAGALAND- 1. N S C N I M 2. N S C N K

MIZORAM- 1.B N L F 2.H P K D

MEGHALAY- 1.A N V C 2. H N L C 3. P L F M

ASAM- 1.N D F B 2. U L F A 3. A D F 4. D H D 5. H P C D 6. K L O 7. M U L T A 8. U P D S

MANIPORE- 1. K C P 2. K Y K L 3. M P L F 4. P L A 5.PRIPAK 6.U N L F 7. H P C D 8. K L A 9. K N A 10. K N F 11. K R A 12. N S C N I M 13.P U LF 14. U K L F 15. Z L A

 MAJOR NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS

30/9/1999- Tokaimura,north east of Tokyo,Japan.

26/4/1986- Chernobyl nuclear power plant near Kiev,USSR(now in Ukraine).

25/8/1981- Tsuruga,Japan.

11/2/1981- TVA’s Sequoyah 1 plant in Tennessee, U.S.A.

28/3/1979- Middletown,Pennsylvana.

22/3/1975- In Decatur,Alahama.U.S.A.

21/1/1969- Lucens Vad,Switzerland.

5/10/1966- Near Detroit, Michigan,U.S.A.

3/1/1961- INear Idaho Falls,Idaho,U.S.A.

7/10/1957- North of Liverpool,England.

MYTHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS

INDIAN-

Abhimanyu- The heroic son of Arjuna(the 4th oh the Pandavas).

Bharata- Son of Dasaratha.

Drona- The teacher in archery of the Pandavas and Kauravas.

Svaha- A doughter of Brihaspati.

Visravas- Father of Ravana.

ROMAN-

Jupiter- Chief god & God of heaven.

Juno- Chief goddess.

Greek-

Morpheus- God of dreams.

Hestia- Goddess of flowers.

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

French harp- Harmonica.

Hawaiian guitar- Ukulele introduced by the Portuguese.

Cello- Bass Violin. It is held between the player’s knees.

Upright piano- Piano in which strings are vertical.

Violin- Four stringed instrument played with a bow.

ASIAN GAMES(1951-2002)

Year                                       Top

1951(N.Delhi)                                                         Japan/India/Iran

1954(Manila)                                                         Japan/Philippines/South Korea

1958(Tokyo)                                                          Japan/Philippines/South Korea

1962(Jakarta)                                                        Japan/Indonesia/India

1966(Bangkok)                                                     Japan/South Korea/Thailand

1970(Bangkok)                                                     Japan/South Korea/Philippines

1974(Tehran)                                                         Japan/Iran/China

1978(Bangkok)                                                     Japan/China/South Korea

1982(N.Delhi)                                                         China/Japan/South Korea

1986(Seoul)                                                            China/South Korea /Japan

1990(Beijing)                                                         China/South Korea /Japan

1994(Hiroshima)                                                                   China/South Korea /Japan

1998(Bangkok)                                                     China/South Korea /Japan

2002(Busan)                                                          China/South Korea /Japan

OLYMPICS(776BC-2004)

Year                            Heald in

776BC                                                                                                   Greece

AD 394                                                                                                                  Athens

1896                                                                                                       Athens

1900                                                                       Paris

1904                                                                       St.Louis

1908                                                                       London

1912                                                                       Stockholm

1920                                                                       Antwerp

1924                                                                       Paris

1928                                                                       Amsterdam

1932                                                                       Los Angeles

1936                                                                       Berlin

1948                                                                       London

1952                                                                       Helsinki

1956                                                                       Melbourne

1960                                                                       Rome

1964                                                                       Tokyo

1968                                                                       Mexico City

1972                                                                       Munich

1976                                                                       Montreal

1980                                                                       Moscow

1984                                                                       Los Angeles

1988                                                                       Seoul

1992                                                                       Bercelona

1996                                                                       Atlanta

2000                                                                       Sydney

2004                                                                       Athens

7 BOOKER PRIZES WINERS

Name                                     Takes Prize for

P.H. Newby(1969)                                                               Something To Answer For

V.S. Naipaul(1971)                                                             in A Free State

John Berger(1972)                                               G

Salman Rushdie(1981)                                      Midnight’s Children

Anita Brookner(1084)                                        Hotel Du Lac

Arundhathi Roy(1997)                                       The God Of Small Things

Kiran Desai (2006)                                              The Inheritance Of Loss

INDIAN  BEAUTY QUEENS

MISS UNIVERSE

Sushmita Sen(1994)

Lara Dutta(2000)

MISS WORLD

Reita Faria(1966)

Aishwarya Rai(1994)

Diana Hayden(1997)

Yukta Mookhey(1999)

Priyanka Chopra(2000)

PAST PROFESSIONS OF CELEBRITIES

Aesop –  Slave

George Orwell –  Policeman

Gregor Mendel –  Monk

Jean Genet –  Professional Criminal and Male Prostitute

John Mills –  Toilet Paper Salesman

GYANPITH WINER BENGALIES

Tara Shankar Banerjee(1966)

Bishnu Dey(1971)

Ashapurna Devi(1976)

Subhas mukhopadhyay(1991)

Mahasweta Devi(1996)

BEST SPORTS MOVIES

1.Ranging Bull(1980)

2.Bull Durham(1988)

3.The Hustler(1961)

4.Searching for Babby Fischer(1993)

5.Frequency(2000)

6.Hoop Dreams(1994)

7.Horse Feathers(1932)

8.The Karate Kid(1984)

9.Rocky(1976)

10.Phorpa(The Cup)(1999)

RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES* IN INDIA

All Religions –  1,028,610,328

Hindus –  827,578,868

Muslims –  138,188,240

Christians –  24,080,016

Sikhs –  19,215,730

Buddhists –  7,955,207

Jains –  4,225,053

Others –  6,639,626

Religion not stated –  727,588

*2001Census

WOMEN CHIEF MINISTERS IN INDIA

Sucheta Kripalani –  UP

Nandini Satpaty –  Orissa

Sashikala Kadokar –  Goa

Syeda Anwara Taimur –  Assam

Janaki Ramachandran –  TN

Jayalalithaa –  TN

Mayawati –  UP

Rajinder Kaur Bhattal –  Punjab

Rabri Devi –  Bihar

Sushma Swaraj –  Delhi

Sheila Dixit –  Delhi

Uma Bharti –  M.P.

Vasundhara Raje Scindia –  Rajasthan

WOMEN GOVERNRS  IN INDIA

Sarojini  Naidu –  United Province/UP

Padmaja Naidu –  West Bengal

Vijayalakshmi Pandit –  Maharashtra

Sharada  Mukherjee-  Andhra Pradesh,Gujarat

Jyothi  Venkatachalam –  Kerala

Kumudben Joshi –  Andhra Pradesh

Ram Dulari Sinha – Kerala

Serla Grewal –  Madhya Pradesh

Chandrawati –  Pondicherry(UT)

Rajendrakumari Bajpayi –   Pondicherry(UT)

Sheila Kaul –  Himachal Pradesh

Justice M. Fatima Beevi –  Tamilnadu

Rama Devi –  Himachal Pradesh,Karnataka

Rajani  Rai – Pondicherry(UT)

OCEANS OF THE WORLD

Pacific – 166,241,000sq km

Atlantic –  86,557,000sq km

Indian –  73,427,000sq km

Arctic-  9,485,000sq km

OCEAN’S GREATEST DEPTHS

Mariana Trench, Pacific Ocean – 1092m

Puerto Rico Trench, Atlantic Ocean-  8605m

Java Trench, Indian Ocean-  7125m

Arctic Basin, Arctic Ocean-  5122m

DRIEST INHABITED PLACESS

                                RAINFALL:CM/YEAR

Aswan,Egypt – 0.05

Luxor ,Egypt –  0.076

Arica Desert,Chile-  0.10

Ica,Peru –0.254

Antofagasta,Chile-  0.508

WETTEST INHABITED PLACESS

                                RAINFALL:CM/YEAR

Buenaventira,Colombia-  678

Monrovia,Liberia-  513

Pago Pago,American Samoa-  503

Moulein,Myanmar-  487

Lae,Papua New Guinea-  465

Baquio,Philippinese-  457

Sylhet,Bangladesh-  452

DEEPRST LAKES

Baikal,Russian Fed – 1620m

Tanganyika,Africa – 1463m

Caspian Sea,Asia-Europe – 1025m

Malawi or Nyasa,Africa – 706m

Issyk-Kul,Kyrgyzstan – 702m

DEEPRST CAVES

Resseu du Foillis(France) – 1455m

Resseu de la Pierre St.(France) – 1321m

Snezhnaya,Caucassus(Russia) – 1280m

Sistema Huatla(Mexico) – 1220m

MAJOR SEAS

South China – 2,974,600sq km

Caribbean – 2,515,900sq km

Mediterranean – 2,510,000sq km

Bering-  2,261,100sq km

Gulf of Mexico – 1,507,600sq km

Sea of Okhotsk – 1,392,100sq km

Sea of Japan or East Sea – 1,012,900sq km

Hudson Bay-  730,100sq km

East China – 664,600sq km

Andaman – 564,900sq km

Black – 507,900sq km

Red-  453,000sq km

HOTTEST,COLDEST,DRIEST,WETTEST

Hottest Place – Dallol , Denakil Depression ,Ethiopia ,Annual average temp. 34.40C.

Coldest Place – Plateau Station,Antartica,Annual average temp.-56.70C.

Driest Place – Africa, Atacama Desert, Chile. Annual average rainfall 0.08cm.

Wettest Place – Mawsynram,Meghalaya  Annual average rainfall 1168cm.

WELL KNOWN HORSES

Name                                     To whom it belonged

Chetak                                                               Maharana Pratap

Bucephalus                                                      Alexander the Great

Incitatus                                                                           Caligula, Roman emperor

Marengo                                                           Napoleon,French emperor

Marsala                                                            Garibaldi,Italian Patriot

WELL KNOWN DOGS

Name                                     To whom it belonged

Peritas                                                              Alexander the Great

Blondie                                                            Hitler

Chequers                                                         Richard Nixon

Diamond                                                         Isaac Newton

Nipper                                                              Fox terrier for His Master’s Voice

MAJOR LAKES

Caspian Sea – 371,000sq km

Superior – 82,100sq km

Victoria – 69,500sq km

Huron – 59,600sq km

Michigan – 57,800sq km

Tanganyika – 32,900sq km

Baikal – 31,500sq km

Great Bear – 31,300sq km

Aral Sea – 30,700sq km

Malawi – 28,900sq km

Great Slave – 28,568sq km

Erie – 25,667sq km

Winnipeq – 24,387sq km

Ontario – 19,529sq km

Balkhash – 18,300sq km

NICKNAMES

Father of Comedy – Aristophanes

Father of  Sunday Newspapers – John Bell

Father of  Greek Tragedy – Aeschylus

Father of  Angling – Izaac Walton

Father of  Railways – George Stephenson

NAMES:OLD AND NEW

New Names                                          Old Names

Beijing                                                                                   Peking

Congo                                                                                    Zaire

Ghana                                                                                    Gold Cost

Hanoi                                                                                     Kecho

Thailand                                                                                                Siam

TOP FIVE INDIAN WORLD-BEATERS IN INDIVIDUAL SPORTS

Prakash Padukone – All – England badminton championships winner (1980) (Pullela Gopichand repeated the feat in 2001).

Jeev Milkha Singh – First Asian golfer to win in Europe(2006).

Arjun Atwal –  First Indian golfer to win an European tour event(2002).

Milkha Singh – He missed the 400 metres bronze by a whisker at the Rome Olympics(1960).

Wilson Jones,Michael Ferreira,Geet Sethi,Pankaj Advani – Winners of 17 world billiards and snooker titles (from 1958).

FEW WOMEN RULERS

Suhbaataryn Yanjmaa(Mongolia,1953-54) –  Acting President.

Indira Gandhi(India,1966-77,1980-84) –  Prime Minister.

Benazir Bhutto(Pakistan,1988-90,1993-96) –   Prime Minister.

Sheik Hasina(Bangladesh,1996) –   Prime Minister.

Yuliya Tymoshenko(Ukraine,2005) –  Prime Minister.

Maria do Carme Silveira(Sao Torne and Principe,2005) –  Prime Minister.

Cynthia A Pratt(Bahamas,2005) –  Acting Prime Minister.

Fausta Simona Morgani(San Marino,2005) –  Co Captain Regent.

Michaelle Jean(Canada,2005) –  Governor General

Angela Merkel(Germany,2005) –  Chancellor.

WORLD’S TALLEST TOWERS

Canadian National Tower –  553m

OstankinoTower –  537m

Oriental Pearl Tower –  468m

Milad Tower –  435m

Menara Kuala Lumpur –  421m

Central Radio & TV Tower –  405m

Tianjin TV Tower –  415m

Kiev TV Tower –  385m

Tashkent Tower –  375m

Liberation Tower –  372m

Alma-Ata Tower –  371m

Riga TV Tower –  368m

Fernsehturm Tower –  368m

Stratosphere Tower –  350m

Macau Tower –  338m

WORLD’S TALLEST BUILDINGS

Taipei  101 –  509m

Petronas Tower 1-  452m

Petronas Tower 2 –  452m

Sears Tower –  442m

Jin Mao Building –  421m

Two  international Finance Center –  415m

CITIC Plaza –  391m

Shun Hing Square –  384m

Empire State Building –  381m

Central Plaza –  374m

Bank of China –  369m

EmiratesTower One –  355m

Tuntex Sky Tower –  348m

Aon Center  –  346m

The Center  –  346m

THE BEST CAREERS OF 2006

– Curriculum and instructional co-ordinators.

– High- school special – education teachers.

– Hospital and clinic managers.

– Management consultants and analysts.

– Medical researchers.

– Physical therapists.

– Sales,marketing and advertising managers.

– Social workers,counsellors and related managers.

BHARAT RATNA WINERS

  1. Rajagopalachari(1954).
  2. Radha krishnan(1954).

C.V. Raman(1954).

Jawaharlal Nehru(1955).

Bhagwan Das(1955).

  1. Visweswariayya(1955).

Govind Ballabh Pant(1957).

D.K. Karve(1958).

B.C.Roy(1961).

P.D.Tandon(1961).

Rajendra Prasad(1962).

Zakir Hussain(1963).

P.V. Kane(1963).

Lal Bahadur Shastri(posthumous,1966).

Indira Gandhi(1971).

V.V. Giri(1975).

K.Kamraj(posthumous,1976).

Mother Teresa(1980).

Vinoba Bhave(1983).

‘Frontier Gandhi’Khan Abdul Ghafar Khan(1987).

M.G.Ramachandran(posthumous,1988).

Dr.B.R.Ambedkar(1990).

Dr.Nelson Mandela(1990).

Rajiv Gandhi(posthumous,1991).

Sardar Vallabhai Patel(posthumous,1991).

Morarjee Desai(1991).

J.R.D. Tata,Satyajit Roy(posthumous,1992).

Gulzarilal Nanda(1997).

A P J Abdul Kalam , M.S. Subbalakshmi , C. Subramaniam , Jaiprakash Narayan(posthumous,1998).

Amartya  Sen , Ravi Shankar , Gopinath Bordoloi(posthumous,1999).

Ustad Bismilla  Khan ,Lata Mankeshkar(2001).

AMERICAN ENGLISH

British English                                    American English

Bag                                                                                         Sack

Biscuit                                                                                    Cookie

By-law                                                                                   Ordinance

Car-boot                                                                                                Trunk

Jam                                                                                        Jelly

OSCAR WINING PICTURES

1928 – Wings,Paramount.1929 – The Broadway Melody , MGM.1930 – All  Quiet on the Western Front ,Universal.1931 – Cimarron.1932 – Grand Hotel , MGM.1933 – Cavalcade , Fox.1934 – It Happened One Night , Columbia.1935 – Mutiny on the Bounty ,MGM.1936 – The Great Ziegfeld , MGM.1937 – The Life of Emile Zola , Warner.1938 – You  Can’t  Take It with You , Columbia.1939 – Gone with the Wind , Selznick ,MGM.1940 – Rebecca, Sleznick – United Artists.1941 – How Green Was  My Valley ,20th Century-Fox.1942 – Mrs. Miniver  ,MGM.1943 – Casablanca,Warner Bros.1944 – Going My Way, Paramount.1945 – The Lost Weekend,Paramount.1946 – The Best Years of Our Lives,Goldwyn  RKO Radio.1947 – Gentleman’s Agreement,20th Century-Fox.1948 –Hamlet,Rank-Two Cities-UI.1949 – All the King’s Men,Rossen-Columbia.1950 – All About Eve,20th Century-Fox.1951 – An American in Paris ,MGM.1952 – The Greatest Show on Earth, Demille Paramount.1953 – From Here to Elemity,Columbia.1954 – On the Waterfront , Horizon-American Crop , Columbia.1955 – Marty, Hecht and  Lancaster ,United Artists.1956 – Around the World in  80 Days,Michael Todd Co. , Inc – United  Artists.1957 – The Bridge on the River Kwai , Horizon Films,Columbia.1958 – Gigi , Arthur Freed Productions , Inc. , MGM.1959 – Ben – Hur , MGM.1960 – The Apartment,Mirisch Co.,Inc – United  Artists.1961 – West Side Story , Mirisch ,Pictures,Inc.,and B and P Enterprises,Inc.,United  Artists.1962 – Lawrence of Arabia,Horizon Pictures,.1963 – Tom Jones,A Woodfall Production,United Artists – Lopert Pictures.1964 – My Fair Lady, Warner Bros.1965 – The Sound of Music,Argyle, Enterprises  Production , 20th Century-Fox.1966 – A Man for All Seasons, Highland Films, Ltd., Production ,Columbia.1967 – In the Heat of the Night, Mirisch Crop.Production ,United  Artists.1968 – Oliver , Columbia Pictures.1969 – Midnight Cowboy, Jerome Hellman John  Schlesinger Production ,United  Artists.1970 – Patton , Frank  McCarty-Franklin J. Schaffner  Production ,20th Century-Fox.1971 – The French Connection , D’Antoni , 20th Century-Fox .1972 – The  Godfather , Albert  S. Production , Paramount.1973 – The Sting, Universal-Bill/ Phillips -George Roy Hill Production, Universal.1974 – The Godfather , Part II,Coppola Co.Production, Paramount.1975 – One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest,Fantasy Films  Production, United  Artists.1976 – Rocky, Robert  Chartoff-Irwin  Winkler Production, United  Artists.1977 – Annie Hall,ack Rollins-Charles H. Joffe Production ,United  Artists.1978 –  The Deer Hunter,Michael Climino   Film Production, Universal.1979 – Kramer vs Kramer,Stanley laffe  Production , Columbia Pictures.1980 – Ordinary People,Wildwood Enterprises  Production , Paramount.1981 – Chariots of Fire,Enigma  Productions,ladd Company/Warner Bros.1982 – Gandhi , Indo – British  Films Production / Columbia.1983 – Terms of  Endearment ,Paramount.1984 – Amadeus,Orion.1985 – Out of Africa,Universal.1986 – Platoon,Orion.1987 – The Last Emperor,Pictures.1988 – Rain Man ,United  Artists .1989 –  Driving Miss Daisy, Warner Bros.1990- Dances With Wolves,Orion.1991 – The Silence of the Lambs,Orion.1992 – Unforgiven ,Warner Bros.1993 – Schindler’s List, Universal.1994 – Forrest Gump,Paramount.1995 – Braveheart ,Paramount.1996 – The English Patient,Miramax.1997 – Titanic, 20th Century-Fox.1998 – Shkespeare in Love,Miramax.1999 –  American  Beauty, Dream Works SKG.2000 – Gladiator, Dream Works and Universal.2001 – A Beautiful Mind , Brian Grazer and Ron Howard , producer.2002 –  Chicago,Martin Richards ,producer.2003 – The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King.

8 GOVERNORS OF RBI

Sir Osborne Smith –  1/4/1935 – 30/6/1937.

Sir C.D. Deshmukh –  11/8/1943 – 30/6/1949.

K.G. Ambegaonkar –  14/1/1957 – 28/2/1957.

P.C. Bhattacharya –   1/3/1962 – 30/6/1967.

M.Narasimham –        2/5/1977 – 30/11/1977.

A.Ghosh –                     15/1/1985 – 4/2/1985.

Dr. C. Rangarajan –   22/12/1992 – 21/11/1997.

Dr. Bimal Jalan –       22/11/1997 – 6/9/2003.

FAMOUS WATERFALLS

Angel(Venezuela,807m), Mongefossen(Norway,774m), Kukenaam (Venezuela,610m), Utigard (Norway,600m), Ribbon (USA,491m), King George VI (Guyana,487m), Roraima  (Guyana,457m), Upper Yosemite (USA,435m), Kalambo (Tanzania- Zambia,426m), Gavarnie (France,421m), Tugela (S.Africa,410m), Takakkaw (Canada,365m).

LARGEST ISLANDS

Australia (7682300sq km), Greenland (2175600sq km), New Guinea (792500sq km), Borneo(725545sq km), Malagasy Rep.(587000), Baffin Island (476065sq km), Sumatra (427300sq km), Honshu (227400sq km), Great Britain (218041sq km),Victoria Island(217300sq km),Eliesmere Island (196236sq km),Celebes (189035sq km).

PRINCIPAL PEAKS

Mt. Everest (8848m), Everest  South  Summit (8750m),K2(Mt. Godwin) (8611m),  Kanchenjunga (8598m), Dhaulagiri  (8167m), Nanga Parbat (8126m), Annapurna  (8091m),Nanda Devi (7817m), Mt. Kamet (7756m), Saltoro Kangri  (7742m).

LONGEST RIVERS

Nile (6650km), Amazon (6437km), Mississippi-Missouri (6020km), Yangtze Kiang (5494km),Ob-Irtysh  (5410km), Zaire (4700km), Lena (4400km),Hwang Ho (4344km), Mackenzie (4241km), Mekong  (4180km),Niger  (4180km), St.Lawrence (4023km), Parana (4000km), Yenisey (3804km),Murray – Darling (3780km),  Volga(3690km), Zambezi(3540km), Maderia (3218km), Purus (3200km), Youkon  – Teslin  (3185km),  Rio Grande(3040km), Indus (2900km), Brahmaputra (2900km), Danube (2850km), Amur (28240km), Salween (2815km), Shatt al – Arab   (2740km), Si (2650km), Orinoco (2575km), Nelson (2570km).

LARGEST DESERTS

SUBTROPICAL

Sahara –  9,064,650sq km.

Arabian- 2,589,900sq km.

Great Victoria- 647,475sq km.

Kalahari- 582,727sq km.

Chihuahuan- 453,232sq km.

Thar- 453,232sq

Great Sandy- 388,485sq km.

Gibson- 310,788sq km.

Sonoran- 310,788sq km.

Simpson- 145,034sq km.

Mohave- 139,854sq km.

COOL COASTAL

Atacame – 139,854sq km.

Namib –  33,668sq km.

COLD WINTER

Gobi –  1,294,950sq km.

Patagonian –  673,374sq km.

Great Basin –  492,081sq km.

Kara-Kum –  349,636sq km.

Colorado –  336,687sq km.

Kyzyl-Kum –  297,838sq km.

Taklamakan –  271,939sq km.

Iranian –  258,990sq km.

VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

Mt.Vesuvius –  79AD.

Kelet –  1586.

Mt. Unzen –  1792.

Tambora –  1815.

Krakatoa –  1883.

Mt. Pelee –  1902.

Mt. St Helens –  1980

El Chichon –  1982.

Nevado del Ruiz –  1985.

Lake Nyos –  1986.

Mt. Mt Pinatubo –  1991.

SOLAR  STATISTICS

Distance from the Earth –  149.8milion km.

Absolute Visual Magnitude –  4.75.

Diameter –  1,384,000km.

Core Temperature –  15 000 000k.

Photosphere Temperature –  5770k.

Rotation as seen from the Earth –

(at the Equator)                 25.38days.

(near the poles)                   33days.

Chemical Composition –

Hydrogen                             710/0 .

Helium                                  26.50/0 .

Other Elements                   2.50/0 .

Age –  About 4.5bilion years.

Expected lifetime of a normal star –  About 10 bilion years.

EARTH DATA

Surface area –  510 100 500 sq km.

Land surface –  148 950 800sq km.

Ocean surface- 361 149 700sq km.

Total water area – 382 672 000sq km.

Type of  water –  970/0 =salt & 3 0/0 = fresh.

Equatorial circumference –  40 066 km.

Polar circumference –  39 992 km.

Equatorial diameter –  12 753 km.

Polar diameter –  12 710 km.

Equatorial  radius –  6376 km.

Polar radius –  6355 km.

Mass (estimated weight) –  5940000000000000000000 metric tons.

Mean  distance from the Sun –  149 407 000 km.

Earth’s Orbit Speed (around Sun) –  107 320 kmph.

Period of  Revolution(round  the Sun) –  365 days 5 hrs. 48 min. 45.51sec.

Time of Rotation(on its own axis) –  23 hrs. 56 min. 4.09sec.

Inclination of the axis –  66030’.

Speed of  Rockets –  8km/sec approx.

Escape Velocity –  11km/sec.

SWARNA KAMAL WINNER BENGALI FILMS

1955 –  Pather Panchali.

1956 –  Kabuliwala.

1958 –  Sagar Sangame.

1959 –  Apur Sansar.

1961 –  Bhagini Nivedita.

1962 –  Dada Thakur.

1964 –  Charulata.

1967 –  Hatey Bazarey.

1968 –  Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne.

1971 –  Seemabaddha.

1974 –  Chorus.

1980 –  Akaler Sandhane.

1981 –  Dakhal.

1982 –  Chokh.

1991 –  Agantuk.

1993 –  Charachar.

1994 –  Unishe April.

1996 –  Lal Darja.

2002 –  Mondo Meyer Upakhyan.

4 PRESIDENTS OF USA

George Washington –  1789-1797.

George H.W. Bush –  1989-1993.

William J. Clinton – 1993-2001.

George W. Bush –  2001-.

4 BRITISH PRIME MINISTERS

Robert Walpole –  1721-1742.

Margaret Thatcher –  1979-1990.

John Major –  1990- 1997.

Tony Blair –  1997.

20 INVENTIONS

Acetylene gas(1862) –  Berthelot(French).

Adding Machine(1642) –  Pascal(French).

Yoga(200-100BC) –  Patanjali(India).

Sidhayoga(C,750) –  Vrdukunta(India).

Western Scientific Therapy(460-370BC)  –  Hippocrates(Greece).

Ayurveda(2000-1000BC) –  Atreya(India).

Ashtanga Hridaya(C. 550AD) –  Vagbhata(India).

Sex  hormones(1910) –  Eugen Steinach(Austria).

Terramycin(1950) –  Finlay & Others(USA).

Use of artificial heart(for surgery)(1963) –  Michael de Bakey(Britian).

Vaccine , polio – oral (1960) –  Albert Sabin(USA).

Small  Pox  eradicated(1980) –  W.H.O. Declaration(UN).

Vaccine ,meningitis (1987) –  Gordon,et al. Connaught Lab.(USA).

Aspirin(1889) –  Dreser(Germany).

Anesthesia, spinal (1898) –  Bier (Germany).

Anatomia(1316) –  Mondino(Italy).

Blood Bank(1940) –  Drew(USA).

Pacemaker(1952) –  Zoll(USA).

Seat belt(1959) –  Volvo(Sweden).

Post-it-note(1980) –  3M(Asia Minor).

THE BOOKS OF MITHU
(1)NAM ABHIDHAN[2001]{RUNNER}
(2)SANGASKARER KOSHTHI BICHAR[2002]{LOTOUS}
(3)BIKALPO CHIKITSAR BISWAKOSH[2003]{GRANTHIK}
(4)TABE PHUL PHAL CHASH[2003]{CHATURBHUJ}
(5)JYOTISHER CHOKHE APNAR JIBAN[2004]{CHATURBHUJ}
(6)CRICKET QUEIZ FOOTBALL QUEIZ[2004]{CHATURBHUJ}
(7)ANKER KHELA[2004]{TARA LIBRERY}
(8)BAYABSAR KHONJE[2005]{LOTOUS}
(9)CHAKRIR KHONJE[2005]{LOTOUS}
(10)SACHITRA AURBEDIK CHIKITSA[2005]{SREEGURU}
(11)SIDE EFFCET HIN CHIKITSA[2006]{APP}
(12)KINGBADANTI[2006]{ORIENT LIBRERY}
(13) HAJARO PRASHNE RAMAYAN,MAHABHARAT[2006]{ORIENT LIBRERY}
(14) MEMORY AND LEARNNING PROCESS[2006]{NETAJI SUBHAS OPEN UNIVERCITY}
(15)TENSION MUKTA JEEBAN[2006]{BENIMADHAB SHIL’S LIBRERY}
(16)PARIKSHAY BHALO RESULT KARTE HOLE[2006]{BENIMADHAB SHIL’S LIBRERY}
(17) CHOTODER SERA RACHANA[2006]{RUNNER}
(18)TABE PHUL O PHALER CHASH[2006]{SREEGURU}
(19)PALASIR JUDDHA[2006]{PAPYRUS}
(20)ATANGKER ARALE[2006]{CHATURBHUJ}
(21)CURRENT AFFAIRS AND GENAREL KNOLEDGE 2007 [2007]{ORIENT LIBRERY}
(22)CURRENT AFFAIRS AND GENAREL KNOLEDGE 2008[2007]{ORIENT LIBRERY}
(23)SUGRIHINIR 501 TIPS[2007]{ORIENT LIBRERY}
(24)SAB DIN SMARANEEYO DIN [2007]{LOTOUS}
(25)SABDACHOKE BISWA PARICHAY.[2007]{ORIENT LIBRERY}
(23)ADHUNIKA ROJGERE GINNI[2007]{ORIENT LIBRERY}
(27) MEYEDER JIBIKA[2008]{RUNNER}
(28) NIJER BIBAHA YOG NIJEI JANUN[2008]{TARA LIBRERY}
(29)BHUTBHUBANPURER BATGACH[2008]{ORIENT LIBRERY}
(30)BHUTER KHAPPARE GOPAL BHANR[2008]{ORIENT LIBRERY}
(31) RUDRAKHSHER GUNAGUN O SHAKTI RAHASYA[2008]{TARA LIBRERY}
(32) 1001 COLOURFUL SMS[2008]{ORIENT LIBRERY}
(33)NANA SWADER RANNA[2004]{GRANTHIK}
(34)HAJAR EK RANNA[2006]{BENI MADHAB SHEEL’S LIBRERY}
(35) PREM,DAMPATTA O KICHU SAMASYA[2008]{ORIENT LIBRERY}
(36) GRIHINIR ABHIDHAN[2009]{ORIENT LIBRERY}
(37) CHASHABAD BAROMAS[2009]{SREEGURU}
(38) 501 DHANDHA[2009]{ORIENT LIBRERY}
(39) LOKPAL BILL O ANNA HAJARE [2011]{SREEGURU}
(40) KOLKATAR PUJO PARIKRAMA[2011]{SREEGURU}
(41) CHAR RASIKER MAJAR GALPO[2011]{SREEGURU}
(42) KELUKA RETURNS[2012]{BOIPOKA}
(43)BHARAT BHRAMAN[2012]{GRANTHIK}
(44)CHARAY GANTHA GALPOMALA[2013]{CHAYA}
(45)BASTU O FENGSUI[2013]{BENIMADHAB SHIL’S LIBRERY}
(46) BARO MASER SABJI CHASH[2013]{TARA LIBRERY}
(47) AKSHOY PICTURE WORDBOOK[2013]{TARA LIBRERY}
(48) SONAR SANGSAR[2014]{SREEGURU}
(49)CHOTODER RACHANA[2014]{CHAYA}
(50)KISHOR BANGLA RACHANA[2015]{CHAYA}
(51)KIBHABE SANGIDER CHINBE O JANBE[2015]{CHAYA}
(52)SANGASKRITI ANKUR[2016]{GAYETRI PAARIBAR}
(53)SANGASKRITI PALLAB[2016]{GAYETRI PAARIBAR}
(54)SUGRIINIR ABHIDHAN[2016]{CHAYA}
(55)CHANAKYA SLOK[2017]{CHAYA}
(56)SHABDA ABHIDDHAN O SHABDOCHHAK[2018]{CHAYA}
(57)GHAD, KOMOR, HANTUR BYATHA THEKE BANCHBEN KEEBHABE [2020]{CLEVER FOX}


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